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______ emerges as a world leader

Japan emerges as a world leader during WWI on the side of the Allies


exclusive, elite group (Hideki Tojo - tried to gain territory for Japan)

Sun Yat-sen

leader of the Nationalist Party in China

Chiang Kai-shek

began a military campaign to reunite China under a national government after Sun's death

Mao Zedong

led Communist forces in China agains Chiang Kai-Shek

______ seized Manchuria

Japan seized Manchuria ------> League of Nations does nothing

_______ & _______ work together against Japan

Mao Zedong & Chiang Kai-shek work together against Japan

_______ wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire & invaded _______

Mussolini wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire ------> invades Ethiopia, League of Nations only institutes sanctions, later also took Albania


forbidding the sale of certain materials

Third Reich

new German empire under Hitler


"living space", Hitler rearms Germany, gets out of the League of Nations, violates the Treaty of Versailles

Rome-Berlin Axis

German & Italian alliance, shows support of Francisco Franco of Spanish Civil War, this is practice before WW2

Anti-Comintern Pact

between Germany & Japan, against Russia

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, & Japan


union, Hitler establishes control in Austria

Neville Chamberlain

prime minister of Great Britain who met with Hitler to seek a solution to the Czech crisis, Sudetenland told to join the German Reich but they refuse

Munich Conference

Sudetenland given to Hitler


prime minister of France who told Chamberlain to give away the land at the Munich Conference


buying off an aggressor by making concessions, Britain's treatment of Hitler

Winston Churchill

member of the House of Commons who denounced appeasement

Hitler demands the _____ ______ but France & Britain refuse to allow this

Hitler demands the "Polish Corridor" but Britain & France refuse to allow this

Pact of Steel

military alliance between Hitler & Mussolini

Nonaggression Pact

between Germany and Russia, shocks everyone (they were enemies)

September 1, 1939

German forces attack Poland -----> Britain & France declare war on Germany, Poland taken in 4 weeks

Panzer Divisions

armored tanks


Germany's powerful & superior air force, later bomb cities & civilians during Hitler's invasion of Great Britain


"lightning war"

______ invades Poland from the east & agrees to divide Poland w/ Germany, later they also take ______

Russia invades Poland & later takes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & parts of Finland


"sitting war", due to the weather

______ is taken in just hours

Denmark is taken in just hours

Fifth Columnists

individuals within a country who secretly aid the enemy by spying, spreading enemy propaganda, & committing sabotage (happened to Norway)


most notorious fifth columnist

Maginot Line

underground French defense on the German border

______ bypassed all British & French soldiers by going through heavy fortifications

Germans bypassed all French & British soldiers by going through heavy fortifications

Miracle at Dunkirk

350,000 allied soldiers rescued by more than 800 ships during a fog

Henri Petain

WWI hero who headed the new French government, asked Germany for armistice

Vichy France

new seat of government under Petain

Charles de Gaulle

led the Free French movement against Germany & Vichy France

Mussolini sees Allie trouble & invades _____

Egypt (where Mussolini sees Allie trouble and invades), British push Italy out, take troops & valuable material

Erwin Rommel

brilliant German commander known as the "Desert Fox", sent by Hitler to help Mussolini, later accused of conspiring to kill Hitler in 1944, given a choice of trial or suicide, chooses suicide

______ becomes the new prime minister of Britain

Churchill becomes the new prime minister of Britain


invasion by sea, blockade around the UK


British Royal Air Force, fewer planes than the Germans, but more advanced b/c of radar

Lend-Lease Act

authorized the President to sell military supplies to any country whose security was important to the US

Atlantic Charter

document setting forth "common principles" on which the US and Britain based their hopes for a better world future

Hitler violated the pact with ______

Stalin, (Hitler violated the pact w/ Stalin for lebensraum ("living space") & natural resources

German attack on Russia fails b/c.....

Russian winters defeat the Germans, scorched-earth policy, Battle for Stalingrad

Hideki Tojo

fanatical militarist who became the dictator of Japan, signs a nonaggression pact w/ Russia

December 7, 1941

Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor crippling the US fleet

famous quotes about the attack on Pearl Harbor

"date which will live in infamy" - Franklin Roosevelt, "sleeping giant" - Japanese admiral Yamamoto


defeated the Germans at North Africa (British)

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

American who landed on the Algerian coast & Sicily, North Africa is won for the Allies

_______ surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees

Italy surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees


fighters who harass an enemy occupying the territory, capture/kill Mussolini

Casablanca, Morocco meeting

Churchill & Roosevelt want nothing less than "unconditional surrender" by the Axis

Tehran, Iran (summit meeting)

"Big Three" = Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

Operation Overlord

invasion of France by US & Britain, deceived the Germans as to where the attack would be


the day when the attack is to be launched

June 6, 1944

Eisenhower ordered the attack to proceed on 5 different Normandy beaches, greatest amphibious operation in history

General Douglas MacArthur

American commander who vowed, "I shall return" to the Philippines after surrender to the Japanese (Bataan Death March later occured in the Philippines b/c of Japanese takeover)

_______ take a lot of land = too much for them to cover

Japanese take a lot of land = too much for them to cover

Battle of Coral Sea

keeps Australia away from the Japanese (whole battle is done with planes)

Battle of Midway

put Japan on the defensive for the rest of the war

Banzai charges

war cry shouted by Japanese troops

code talkers

American messages sent in Navajo by Navajos

_______ returns to Philippines ------> Battle of Leyte Gulf

General MacArthur returns to Philippines -----> Battle of Leyte Gulf

Allies capture these 2 islands in the pacific: ____ _____ & ______

Iwo Jima & Okinawa

Battle of the Bulge

wasted much of Germany's strength & hastened the end of the war, last effort by Hitler

Yalta Conference

promised Stalin eastern Europe if he would cooperate

May 8, 1945

V-E Day, Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered unconditionally


German atrocities in concentration camps, death of over 6 million Jews

Postdam Conference

Harry Truman - President after Roosevelt, Clement Attlee - new prime minister after Churchill, issued an ultimatum to Japan

Manhattan Project

Little Boy - dropped on Hiroshima in August 1945, Fat Man - dropped on Nagasaki after Japan refused to surrender

Japan surrenders on _______

August 14 = date Japan surrendered

September 2, 1945

V-J Day, Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri

United Nations

designed to maintain international peace & security, Isaiah 2:4 is inscribed on the building in New York

3 major bodies in the UN

1) Secretariat - administrative arm of the UN, 2) General Assembly - all member nations are represented to debate world issues, 3) Security Council - embodies the executive, or enforcement, power of the UN


established himself as dictator of the USSR after Lenin, literally re-wrote history

Five-Year Plan

series of programs designed to build industrial production


bringing agriculture under government control


wiping out anyone who might be disloyal to Stalin


"Communist International", found Communist parties in other countries

Fascism characteristics

1) privately owned business with government control, 2) highly nationalistic, 3) military dictatorship, 4) glorifies the state

Communism characteristics

1) government owns & controls business, 2) seeks classless, international society, 3) "dictatorship of the proletariat", 4) teaches that the state will gradually wither away


leader of the Fascist party in Italy, became the premier of Italy, il Dulce - "leader" or "commander"


program for making Italy self-sufficient


13 groups which represent different divisions of the work force

Lateran Treaties

series of agreements Italy made with the Roman Catholic Church

Wilhelm II abdicates which leads to Germany.....

getting a republic


German Parliament

Weimar Republic

government set up after WWI


one of the most murderous & tyrannical dictators in modern history

National Socialist Germans Worker's Party =

Nazi Party

Mein Kampf

"My Struggle", written by Hitler while in prison for a revolt


Nazi movement, symbol = broken cross


president of the Weimar Republic, asked Hitler to join the coalition and made him chancellor


secret police, under Himmler's SS


harming Jews




artist paints how he feels rather than realistically portraying the object, color is key


best representative of expressionism through painting


reduced figures to geometric shapes to be portrayed from several perspectives at once


believed that what we see might not be the final reality, cubist painter

3 materials commonly used in agriculture at this time

concrete, glass, steel


American architect credited with developing the skyscraper


functionalist who popularized this style in Europe

Frank Lloyd Wright

buildings blended with their surroundings


"Father of Modern Music"


used several keys simultaneously


abandoned all fixed tone patterns

atonal music

no special emphasis given to any 1 tone

T.S. Eliot

poet who portrayed the desolation & meaninglessness of modern life, "The Waste Land" & "The Hollow Men"

Thomas Mann

presented central characters as passive figures victimized by uncontrollable surroundings

James Joyce

developed the "stream-of-consciousness" technique

25% unemployment in....

Great Britain


government relief for the unemployed ----> becomes a welfare state

Ramsay MacDonald

1st Labour Party prime minister of Britain, signals the rise of socialism

Statute of Westminister

declared Canada, Australia, New Zealand, & South Africa to be "autonomous communities"

Leon Blum

prime minister of the Popular Front, a socialist & communist

France made _____ w/ smaller European countries

defensive alliances

Maginot Line

underground fortifications believed to stop any German attack, didn't work in WW2

Pres. Harding

"return to normalcy"

Pres. Coolidge

"the business of the United States is business"

Pres. Hoover

"...the bright with hope", during the Roaring Twenties

October 1929

stock market crashed

Pres. Franklin Roosevelt

elected after Hoover to solve America's problems

New Deal

programs of relief, recovery, & reform; increased power of the Bureaucracy - the non-elected officials who handle government affairs

characteristics of totalitarian states

1) use of propaganda, 2) use of secret police, 3) emphasis on goals of state, 4) state control of every aspect of life, 5) government maintained by force, 6) one-party political system

Alexander III

attempted to suppress revolutionary ideas & activities; censorship, pogroms - organized government massacres of the Jews

Nicholas II

incompetent ruler


change through violence

Russo-Japanese War

brought popular discontent to the surface, ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth

Bloody Sunday

government soldiers opened fire on unarmed marchers; 200,000 singing people asking for reform

soviet (coucil)

formed by workers in St. Petersburg


national assembly elected by the people


evil monk who advised the royal family

riots & uprising cause....

Nicholas II abdicates, end of Romanov rule (over 300 years)


leader of the Provisional Government


leader of the Bolsheviks, believed in violent revolutions, student of Karl Marx, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ended war with Germany)


leader of the Communist "Red Army", opponents were the White Army which was supported by the US


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (15 republics), capital moved to Moscow

"war communism"

tightly regulated system of economic controls

New Economic Policy

temporary retreat from Communism to rescue the Russian economy (capitalism)

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