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143 terms

World History 21-22

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______ emerges as a world leader
Japan emerges as a world leader during WWI on the side of the Allies
Clique
exclusive, elite group (Hideki Tojo - tried to gain territory for Japan)
Sun Yat-sen
leader of the Nationalist Party in China
Chiang Kai-shek
began a military campaign to reunite China under a national government after Sun's death
Mao Zedong
led Communist forces in China agains Chiang Kai-Shek
______ seized Manchuria
Japan seized Manchuria ------> League of Nations does nothing
_______ & _______ work together against Japan
Mao Zedong & Chiang Kai-shek work together against Japan
_______ wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire & invaded _______
Mussolini wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire ------> invades Ethiopia, League of Nations only institutes sanctions, later also took Albania
sanctions
forbidding the sale of certain materials
Third Reich
new German empire under Hitler
Lebensraum
"living space", Hitler rearms Germany, gets out of the League of Nations, violates the Treaty of Versailles
Rome-Berlin Axis
German & Italian alliance, shows support of Francisco Franco of Spanish Civil War, this is practice before WW2
Anti-Comintern Pact
between Germany & Japan, against Russia
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, & Japan
Anschluss
union, Hitler establishes control in Austria
Neville Chamberlain
prime minister of Great Britain who met with Hitler to seek a solution to the Czech crisis, Sudetenland told to join the German Reich but they refuse
Munich Conference
Sudetenland given to Hitler
Daladier
prime minister of France who told Chamberlain to give away the land at the Munich Conference
Appeasement
buying off an aggressor by making concessions, Britain's treatment of Hitler
Winston Churchill
member of the House of Commons who denounced appeasement
Hitler demands the _____ ______ but France & Britain refuse to allow this
Hitler demands the "Polish Corridor" but Britain & France refuse to allow this
Pact of Steel
military alliance between Hitler & Mussolini
Nonaggression Pact
between Germany and Russia, shocks everyone (they were enemies)
September 1, 1939
German forces attack Poland -----> Britain & France declare war on Germany, Poland taken in 4 weeks
Panzer Divisions
armored tanks
Luftwaffe
Germany's powerful & superior air force, later bomb cities & civilians during Hitler's invasion of Great Britain
Blitzkrieg
"lightning war"
______ invades Poland from the east & agrees to divide Poland w/ Germany, later they also take ______
Russia invades Poland & later takes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, & parts of Finland
Sitzkrieg
"sitting war", due to the weather
______ is taken in just hours
Denmark is taken in just hours
Fifth Columnists
individuals within a country who secretly aid the enemy by spying, spreading enemy propaganda, & committing sabotage (happened to Norway)
Quisling
most notorious fifth columnist
Maginot Line
underground French defense on the German border
______ bypassed all British & French soldiers by going through heavy fortifications
Germans bypassed all French & British soldiers by going through heavy fortifications
Miracle at Dunkirk
350,000 allied soldiers rescued by more than 800 ships during a fog
Henri Petain
WWI hero who headed the new French government, asked Germany for armistice
Vichy France
new seat of government under Petain
Charles de Gaulle
led the Free French movement against Germany & Vichy France
Mussolini sees Allie trouble & invades _____
Egypt (where Mussolini sees Allie trouble and invades), British push Italy out, take troops & valuable material
Erwin Rommel
brilliant German commander known as the "Desert Fox", sent by Hitler to help Mussolini, later accused of conspiring to kill Hitler in 1944, given a choice of trial or suicide, chooses suicide
______ becomes the new prime minister of Britain
Churchill becomes the new prime minister of Britain
Amphibious
invasion by sea, blockade around the UK
RAF
British Royal Air Force, fewer planes than the Germans, but more advanced b/c of radar
Lend-Lease Act
authorized the President to sell military supplies to any country whose security was important to the US
Atlantic Charter
document setting forth "common principles" on which the US and Britain based their hopes for a better world future
Hitler violated the pact with ______
Stalin, (Hitler violated the pact w/ Stalin for lebensraum ("living space") & natural resources
German attack on Russia fails b/c.....
Russian winters defeat the Germans, scorched-earth policy, Battle for Stalingrad
Hideki Tojo
fanatical militarist who became the dictator of Japan, signs a nonaggression pact w/ Russia
December 7, 1941
Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor crippling the US fleet
famous quotes about the attack on Pearl Harbor
"date which will live in infamy" - Franklin Roosevelt, "sleeping giant" - Japanese admiral Yamamoto
Montgomery
defeated the Germans at North Africa (British)
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
American who landed on the Algerian coast & Sicily, North Africa is won for the Allies
_______ surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees
Italy surrenders, Mussolini resigns & flees
partisans
fighters who harass an enemy occupying the territory, capture/kill Mussolini
Casablanca, Morocco meeting
Churchill & Roosevelt want nothing less than "unconditional surrender" by the Axis
Tehran, Iran (summit meeting)
"Big Three" = Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
Operation Overlord
invasion of France by US & Britain, deceived the Germans as to where the attack would be
D-day
the day when the attack is to be launched
June 6, 1944
Eisenhower ordered the attack to proceed on 5 different Normandy beaches, greatest amphibious operation in history
General Douglas MacArthur
American commander who vowed, "I shall return" to the Philippines after surrender to the Japanese (Bataan Death March later occured in the Philippines b/c of Japanese takeover)
_______ take a lot of land = too much for them to cover
Japanese take a lot of land = too much for them to cover
Battle of Coral Sea
keeps Australia away from the Japanese (whole battle is done with planes)
Battle of Midway
put Japan on the defensive for the rest of the war
Banzai charges
war cry shouted by Japanese troops
code talkers
American messages sent in Navajo by Navajos
_______ returns to Philippines ------> Battle of Leyte Gulf
General MacArthur returns to Philippines -----> Battle of Leyte Gulf
Allies capture these 2 islands in the pacific: ____ _____ & ______
Iwo Jima & Okinawa
Battle of the Bulge
wasted much of Germany's strength & hastened the end of the war, last effort by Hitler
Yalta Conference
promised Stalin eastern Europe if he would cooperate
May 8, 1945
V-E Day, Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered unconditionally
Holocaust
German atrocities in concentration camps, death of over 6 million Jews
Postdam Conference
Harry Truman - President after Roosevelt, Clement Attlee - new prime minister after Churchill, issued an ultimatum to Japan
Manhattan Project
Little Boy - dropped on Hiroshima in August 1945, Fat Man - dropped on Nagasaki after Japan refused to surrender
Japan surrenders on _______
August 14 = date Japan surrendered
September 2, 1945
V-J Day, Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri
United Nations
designed to maintain international peace & security, Isaiah 2:4 is inscribed on the building in New York
3 major bodies in the UN
1) Secretariat - administrative arm of the UN, 2) General Assembly - all member nations are represented to debate world issues, 3) Security Council - embodies the executive, or enforcement, power of the UN
Stalin
established himself as dictator of the USSR after Lenin, literally re-wrote history
Five-Year Plan
series of programs designed to build industrial production
Collectivization
bringing agriculture under government control
purges
wiping out anyone who might be disloyal to Stalin
Comintern
"Communist International", found Communist parties in other countries
Fascism characteristics
1) privately owned business with government control, 2) highly nationalistic, 3) military dictatorship, 4) glorifies the state
Communism characteristics
1) government owns & controls business, 2) seeks classless, international society, 3) "dictatorship of the proletariat", 4) teaches that the state will gradually wither away
Mussolini
leader of the Fascist party in Italy, became the premier of Italy, il Dulce - "leader" or "commander"
Autarky
program for making Italy self-sufficient
Syndicates
13 groups which represent different divisions of the work force
Lateran Treaties
series of agreements Italy made with the Roman Catholic Church
Wilhelm II abdicates which leads to Germany.....
getting a republic
Reichstag
German Parliament
Weimar Republic
government set up after WWI
Hitler
one of the most murderous & tyrannical dictators in modern history
National Socialist Germans Worker's Party =
Nazi Party
Mein Kampf
"My Struggle", written by Hitler while in prison for a revolt
Swastika
Nazi movement, symbol = broken cross
Hindenburg
president of the Weimar Republic, asked Hitler to join the coalition and made him chancellor
Gestapo
secret police, under Himmler's SS
Kristallnacht
harming Jews
Autobahnen
superhighways
Expressionism
artist paints how he feels rather than realistically portraying the object, color is key
Matisse
best representative of expressionism through painting
Cubism
reduced figures to geometric shapes to be portrayed from several perspectives at once
Picasso
believed that what we see might not be the final reality, cubist painter
3 materials commonly used in agriculture at this time
concrete, glass, steel
Sullivan
American architect credited with developing the skyscraper
Gropius
functionalist who popularized this style in Europe
Frank Lloyd Wright
buildings blended with their surroundings
Stravinsky
"Father of Modern Music"
polytonality
used several keys simultaneously
Schonberg
abandoned all fixed tone patterns
atonal music
no special emphasis given to any 1 tone
T.S. Eliot
poet who portrayed the desolation & meaninglessness of modern life, "The Waste Land" & "The Hollow Men"
Thomas Mann
presented central characters as passive figures victimized by uncontrollable surroundings
James Joyce
developed the "stream-of-consciousness" technique
25% unemployment in....
Great Britain
dole
government relief for the unemployed ----> becomes a welfare state
Ramsay MacDonald
1st Labour Party prime minister of Britain, signals the rise of socialism
Statute of Westminister
declared Canada, Australia, New Zealand, & South Africa to be "autonomous communities"
Leon Blum
prime minister of the Popular Front, a socialist & communist
France made _____ w/ smaller European countries
defensive alliances
Maginot Line
underground fortifications believed to stop any German attack, didn't work in WW2
Pres. Harding
"return to normalcy"
Pres. Coolidge
"the business of the United States is business"
Pres. Hoover
"...the future....is bright with hope", during the Roaring Twenties
October 1929
stock market crashed
Pres. Franklin Roosevelt
elected after Hoover to solve America's problems
New Deal
programs of relief, recovery, & reform; increased power of the Bureaucracy - the non-elected officials who handle government affairs
characteristics of totalitarian states
1) use of propaganda, 2) use of secret police, 3) emphasis on goals of state, 4) state control of every aspect of life, 5) government maintained by force, 6) one-party political system
Alexander III
attempted to suppress revolutionary ideas & activities; censorship, pogroms - organized government massacres of the Jews
Nicholas II
incompetent ruler
Bolsheviks
change through violence
Russo-Japanese War
brought popular discontent to the surface, ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth
Bloody Sunday
government soldiers opened fire on unarmed marchers; 200,000 singing people asking for reform
soviet (coucil)
formed by workers in St. Petersburg
Duma
national assembly elected by the people
Rasputin
evil monk who advised the royal family
riots & uprising cause....
Nicholas II abdicates, end of Romanov rule (over 300 years)
Kerensky
leader of the Provisional Government
Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, believed in violent revolutions, student of Karl Marx, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (ended war with Germany)
Trotsky
leader of the Communist "Red Army", opponents were the White Army which was supported by the US
USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (15 republics), capital moved to Moscow
"war communism"
tightly regulated system of economic controls
New Economic Policy
temporary retreat from Communism to rescue the Russian economy (capitalism)