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Exam 3 Study Set


The process of transmitting information from one person or place to another.


The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.

Perceptual Filters

The personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli.

Parts of perception process


Attribution Theory

States that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior.

2 attributions to explain behavior

Internal and external

Defensive Bias

The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble.

Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes

Self-Serving Bias

Tendency to overestimate our value by attribution successes to ourselves and attributing failures to others

Communication Process



The process by which the receiver translates the verbal or symbolic form of the message into an understood message.

Formal Communication Channels

The system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information

Horizontal Communication

Communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level.


The transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels


Communication w/ someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-hob performance or behavior.


Communicating w/ someone about non-job related issues such as stress, child care, health issues, retirement planning, or legal issues that may be affecting or interfering w/ the person's performance.


Movements of the body and face


Pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice.

Communication Medium

The method used to deliver an oral or written message

Management Process


Perceptual Process


2 most common perception problem in organizations:

Selective Perception and Closure

Kinds of communication:

1. Formal
2. Informal
3. Coaching/Counseling
4. Nonverbal

3 formal communication channels:


Gossip Chain

One highly connected individual shares information w/ many other managers and workers

Cluster Chain

Numerous people simply tell a few of their friends

2 kinds of nonverbal communication

Kinesics and paralanguage

Strategies to help being a better active listener:

1. Clarify responses
2. Paraphrase or Summarize

Empathetic Listening

Understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame or reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.

3 steps to empathetic listening

1. Wait 10 seconds before you respond
2. Be sure you understand what the speaker wants
3. Respond with feelings first then with facts

Types of constructive feedback

1. Immediate
2. Specific
3. Problem-Oriented

Collaborative Discussion Sites

Use web or software based discussion tools to allow employees across the company to easily ask questions and share knowledge w/ each other.

Steps to establish successful collaborative discussion sites:

1. Pinpoint your company's top intellectual assets through a knowledge audit
2. Create an online directory detailing the expertise of individual workers and make it available to all employees
3. Set up discussion groups on the intranet
4. Reward information sharing

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