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33 terms

Chapter 15: Managing Communication

Exam 3 Study Set
STUDY
PLAY
Communication
The process of transmitting information from one person or place to another.
Perception
The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
Perceptual Filters
The personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli.
Parts of perception process
Attention
Organization
Interpretation
Retention
Attribution Theory
States that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior.
2 attributions to explain behavior
Internal and external
Defensive Bias
The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes
Self-Serving Bias
Tendency to overestimate our value by attribution successes to ourselves and attributing failures to others
Communication Process
Sender
Encoding
Transmits
Receives
Decodes
Feedback
Decoding
The process by which the receiver translates the verbal or symbolic form of the message into an understood message.
Formal Communication Channels
The system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information
Horizontal Communication
Communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level.
Grapevine
The transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
Coaching
Communication w/ someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-hob performance or behavior.
Counseling
Communicating w/ someone about non-job related issues such as stress, child care, health issues, retirement planning, or legal issues that may be affecting or interfering w/ the person's performance.
Kinesics
Movements of the body and face
Paralanguage
Pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice.
Communication Medium
The method used to deliver an oral or written message
Management Process
Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling
Perceptual Process
Attention
Organization
Interpretation
Retention
2 most common perception problem in organizations:
Selective Perception and Closure
Kinds of communication:
1. Formal
2. Informal
3. Coaching/Counseling
4. Nonverbal
3 formal communication channels:
Downward
Upward
Horizontal
Gossip Chain
One highly connected individual shares information w/ many other managers and workers
Cluster Chain
Numerous people simply tell a few of their friends
2 kinds of nonverbal communication
Kinesics and paralanguage
Strategies to help being a better active listener:
1. Clarify responses
2. Paraphrase or Summarize
3.
Empathetic Listening
Understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame or reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.
3 steps to empathetic listening
1. Wait 10 seconds before you respond
2. Be sure you understand what the speaker wants
3. Respond with feelings first then with facts
Types of constructive feedback
1. Immediate
2. Specific
3. Problem-Oriented
Collaborative Discussion Sites
Use web or software based discussion tools to allow employees across the company to easily ask questions and share knowledge w/ each other.
Steps to establish successful collaborative discussion sites:
1. Pinpoint your company's top intellectual assets through a knowledge audit
2. Create an online directory detailing the expertise of individual workers and make it available to all employees
3. Set up discussion groups on the intranet
4. Reward information sharing