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APES Ch. 2 Vocab

STUDY
PLAY
Science
a human endeavor seeking to reduce the complexity to the generic principles used to make predictions
Data
The information which science works and from which conclusions are inferred
Scientific Method
The way a scientist approaches a problem forming a hypothesis and experimenting
Hypothesis
A statement that might be true and is testable by observation and experimenting
Inductive Reasoning
using specific examples to draw a general conclusion
Deductive reasoning
operates from generalities; makes relationships between datem apparent
Variable
factor that influences a process
Control
when a variable remains constant providing a standard
Theory
integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses
Risk assessment
using statistical methods to quantify the harmful effects on human health or environment
Toxicant
chemical with advert affects of health
Toxicology
study of toxicants
Acute Toxicity
effects of exposure to toxins ranging from dizziness to death
Chronic Toxicity
long term damage to vital organs
Dose
amount entering the body
Response
type or amount of damage caused by toxin exposure
Lethal Dose 50%
amount lethal to 50 % of animals given does
Effective Dose 50%
Used for a wide range of biological responses
Dose Response Curve
shows the effect of different doses on a population of test organisms
Threshold
maximum dose that has no measurable effect
Carcinogen
cancer causing radiation chemical or virus
Additive
when two affects combine and the effect is what expected
Synergism
effect is greater when two are combined
Antagonism
effect combined two is less than expected
Precautionary principle
when new technology or chemical is suspected of threatening humans or animals
Ecological Risk Assessments
process when risks are assessed
Environmental Stressors
human induced changes that tax the environment
Watershed
area of land drained by a river
Cost Benefit Analysis
estimated cost compared w/potential benefits to determine expenses
Model
formal statement describing the behavior of a process
Eutrophication
nutrient enhanced freshwater lakes
Garrett Hardin
Published of Tragedy of the commons, 1968
Global commons
parts of the environment that are available to everyone but has shared responsibility
Stewardship
shared responsibility for everyone