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a human endeavor seeking to reduce the complexity to the generic principles used to make predictions


The information which science works and from which conclusions are inferred

Scientific Method

The way a scientist approaches a problem forming a hypothesis and experimenting


A statement that might be true and is testable by observation and experimenting

Inductive Reasoning

using specific examples to draw a general conclusion

Deductive reasoning

operates from generalities; makes relationships between datem apparent


factor that influences a process


when a variable remains constant providing a standard


integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses

Risk assessment

using statistical methods to quantify the harmful effects on human health or environment


chemical with advert affects of health


study of toxicants

Acute Toxicity

effects of exposure to toxins ranging from dizziness to death

Chronic Toxicity

long term damage to vital organs


amount entering the body


type or amount of damage caused by toxin exposure

Lethal Dose 50%

amount lethal to 50 % of animals given does

Effective Dose 50%

Used for a wide range of biological responses

Dose Response Curve

shows the effect of different doses on a population of test organisms


maximum dose that has no measurable effect


cancer causing radiation chemical or virus


when two affects combine and the effect is what expected


effect is greater when two are combined


effect combined two is less than expected

Precautionary principle

when new technology or chemical is suspected of threatening humans or animals

Ecological Risk Assessments

process when risks are assessed

Environmental Stressors

human induced changes that tax the environment


area of land drained by a river

Cost Benefit Analysis

estimated cost compared w/potential benefits to determine expenses


formal statement describing the behavior of a process


nutrient enhanced freshwater lakes

Garrett Hardin

Published of Tragedy of the commons, 1968

Global commons

parts of the environment that are available to everyone but has shared responsibility


shared responsibility for everyone

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