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26 terms

chapter 1: physiology

The Human Body: an orientation
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Anatomy
the study of the structure of the body
gross anatomy
study of whole body or large body structures
microscopic anatomy
study of cells and tissues of the body using a microscope
physiology
study of how the body functions
atoms
tiny building blocks of matter (combine to form molecules)
molecules
combine to make up cells
cell
group together to form tissue
tissue level
group of similar cells with a common function; two or more tissue types combine to form an organ
organ level
made of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body
organ system level
a group of organs that work together to perform a certain job
organism
the living body
integumentary system
cushions and protects deeper tissues, waterproofs body, excretes materials, regulates the body temp., produces vitamin D
skeletal system
bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; supports body, protects organs, forms blood cells,
muscular system
contract( shorten) to cause movement
nervous system
fast acting control system( brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors); responds to stimuli from outside and inside the body by activating appropriate muscles or glands
endocrine system
slower control system (endocrine glands) ; regulates body activity
cardiovascular system
Heart, blood vessels, ; transports blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.
lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen ; return fluid leaked from the blood to the blood vessels, cleanse blood, house white blood cells involved in immunity
respiratory system
nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs ; supplies body with oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide
digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum ;break down food and deliver nutrients to blood eliminate undigested food through anus as feces
urinary system
(aka excretory system) kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra; removes wastes from blood , produce urine to eliminate these wastes, maintains a water and salt balance, maintains an acid-base balance
reproductive system
reproduction
responsiveness
irritability, ability to react to changes in environment
survival needs
nutrients, oxygen, water, stable body temperature,and atmospheric pressure
homeostasis
ability to maintain stable internal conditions even when outside conditions change
atomical position
body is erect, feet parallel, arms at sides with palms forward