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The Human Body: an orientation


the study of the structure of the body

gross anatomy

study of whole body or large body structures

microscopic anatomy

study of cells and tissues of the body using a microscope


study of how the body functions


tiny building blocks of matter (combine to form molecules)


combine to make up cells


group together to form tissue

tissue level

group of similar cells with a common function; two or more tissue types combine to form an organ

organ level

made of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body

organ system level

a group of organs that work together to perform a certain job


the living body

integumentary system

cushions and protects deeper tissues, waterproofs body, excretes materials, regulates the body temp., produces vitamin D

skeletal system

bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints; supports body, protects organs, forms blood cells,

muscular system

contract( shorten) to cause movement

nervous system

fast acting control system( brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors); responds to stimuli from outside and inside the body by activating appropriate muscles or glands

endocrine system

slower control system (endocrine glands) ; regulates body activity

cardiovascular system

Heart, blood vessels, ; transports blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.

lymphatic system

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen ; return fluid leaked from the blood to the blood vessels, cleanse blood, house white blood cells involved in immunity

respiratory system

nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs ; supplies body with oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide

digestive system

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum ;break down food and deliver nutrients to blood eliminate undigested food through anus as feces

urinary system

(aka excretory system) kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra; removes wastes from blood , produce urine to eliminate these wastes, maintains a water and salt balance, maintains an acid-base balance

reproductive system



irritability, ability to react to changes in environment

survival needs

nutrients, oxygen, water, stable body temperature,and atmospheric pressure


ability to maintain stable internal conditions even when outside conditions change

atomical position

body is erect, feet parallel, arms at sides with palms forward

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