28 terms

AP Bio 5 steps to a 5 Glossary

this is the glossary from the 2012 edition of 5 steps to a 5 for AP Biology
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Abiotic Compounds
The nonliving players in an ecosystem, such as climate and nutrients.
Abscisic acid
Plant hormone that inhibits cell growth, prevents premature germination, and stimulates closing of the stomata.
Achondroplasia
Autosomal dominant form of dwarfism seen in one out of 10,000 people.
(ACTH) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
A hormone that stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormones, which work to maintain electrolytic homeostasis in the body.
Active Site
Part of the enzyme that interacts with the substrate in an enzyme-substrate complex.
Active Transport
The movement of a particle across a selectively permeable membrane against its concentration gradient. This movement requires the input of energy, which is why it is termed "active" transport.
Adaption
A trait that, if altered, affects the fitness of the organism. Adaptions are the result of natural selection and can include not only physical traits such as eye and fingernails but also the intangible traits of organisms, such as lifespan.
Adaptive radiation
A rapid series of speciation events that occur when one or more ancestral species invades a new environment.
(ADH) Antidiuretic hormone
A hormone produced in the brain and stored in the pituitary gland; it increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water, leading to more concentrated urine content.
Aerobic respiration
Energy-producing reactions in animals that involve three stages : glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Requires oxygen.
Age structure
Statistic that compares the relative number of individuals in the population from each age group.
Agonistic behavior
Behavior that results from a conflict of interest between individuals; often involves intimidation and submission.
Alcohol
Organic compound that contains a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group.
Alcohol Fermentation
Occurs in fungi, yeast, and bacteria. Pyruvate is converted in two steps to ethanol, regenerating two molecules of NAD+.
Aldehyde
Carbonyl group in which one R is a hydrogen and the other is a carbon chain. Hydrophilic and polar.
Aldosterone
Released from the Adrenal gland, this hormone acts on the distal tubules to cause the reabsorption of more Na+ and water. This increases blood volume and pressure.
Allantois
Transports waste products in mammals to the placenta. Later it is incorporated into the umbilical cord.
Allele
A variant of a gene for a particular character.
Allopatric speciation
Interbreeding ceases because some sort of barrier separates a single population into two. (Ex. An area with no food, a mountain) The two populations evolve independently, and if they change enough, then, even if the barrier is removed, they cannot interbreed.
Alternation of generations
Plant life cycle, so named because during the cycle, plants sometimes exist as a diploid organism and at other times as a haploid organism.
Altruistic behavior
Behavior pattern that reduces the overall fitness of one organism while increasing the fitness of another.
Alveoli
Functional unit of the lung where gas exchange occurs.
Amines
Compounds containing amino groups.
Amino acid
A compound with a carbon center surrounded by an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen and an R group that provides an amino acid's unique chemical characteristics.
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
Enzyme that makes sure that each tRNA molecule picks up the appropriate amino acid for its anticodon.
Amino group
A functional group that contains -NH2 and that acts as a base; an example is an amino acid.
Amnion
Structure formed from epiblast that encloses the fluid-filled cavity that helps cushion the developing embryo.
Amygdala
The portion of the human brain that controls impulsive emotions and anger.
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