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113 terms

World Music Midterm II

STUDY
PLAY
Influences on Indonesia
Hindu beliefs (1st and 2nd centuries), Buddhist beliefs (5th century), Muslim beliefs (13th century)
Bali
home of Indonesia's Hindu minority
Gamelan
the generic name for an ensemble, referencing the manner in which instruments are played and made (played with mallets and hammered into shape); usually accompanies theater or dance
Wayang
shadow puppet play accompanied by a gamelan
Gongs and Drums
core instruments of gamelan music, these instruments are feared and respected
Knobbed Gong
made of bronze and collectively referred to as pencon; has a protrusion to help focus the pitch
Gong Ageng
large hanging gong
Gong Siyem
a smaller hanging gong
Kempul
a set of hanging gongs smaller than the siyem
Kenong
a set of large pot gongs on a wooden frame
Kethuk
a small pot gong on a wooden frame
Kempiang
a pair of small pot gongs on a wooden frame
Bonang
a family of three instruments, although only the smallest and medium sized instruments are generally used in gamelan, including set of pot gongs mounted on a wooden frame in two panel rows
Saron
a family of three instruments that is played with one wooden or bone mallet; each note is dampened with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand as the next note is sounded so that the melody comes through clearly
Gender
a family of three instruments played with a very soft mallet; the keys on these instruments are very thin
Gambang
a instrument used in gamelan with keys made of wood instead of bronze
Kendhang Ageng
the largest of the drums used in gamelan, played either alone or in conjunction with the kepitung
Bedhug
a large hanging drum
Kepitung
a small drum that often interacts with the kendhang
Batagan or Ciblon
a drum used for playing rhythmic patters to accompany dance
Pesindhen
the female soloist in Central Javanese gamelan
Gerongan
the male unison chorus in Central Javanese gamelan
Gerong bedayan
the mixed chorus in Central Javanese gamelan
Celempung
a zither
Rebab
a two-stringed, bowed fiddle
Suling
a bamboo flute
Slendro
a five-note tuning system for gamelans; pitches are generally notated in a cipher notation wherein numbers substitute for pitches
Pelog
a seven-note tuning system for gamelans
Pathet
modes in which different pitches are emphasized and other deemphasized in gamelan tuning systems
Colotomic
a timeline in which regular time periods are delineating by punctuating sounds; gong agent marks the end of the main cycles; part of gamelan performance aesthetic
Simplified/Abstract Melody
the layer at which one piece is distinguished from another; part of gamelan performance aesthetic
Balungan
the essence of the melodic material; played by the saron family in octaves
Elaborated/Varied Melody
fancy melodies are played on instruments that have more than one octave at their disposal, thereby preserving melodic contour; often played by higher pitched instruments; highest saron plays two notes for every one played on the middle saron; part of gamelan performance aesthetic
Drum Patterns
larger drums tend to reinforce the colotomic patters and announce shifts in tempo or the imminent ending of the piece
Gong Kebyar
type of instrument that works on the same principles as the Javanese gamelan, but the keyed instruments come in pairs (creating a shimmering sound distinctive pin Bali) and the instruments are played with harder mallets (creating a brighter and more metallic timbre)
Kempli
often charged with playing the composite rhythm of the colotomic layer
Gangsa
creates the metallic timbre in gong kebyar ensembles when it is played with harder mallets
Kotekan
the sound of rapid, interlocking melodic parts
Kabuki
main form of Japanese musical drama from the 16th century
Degatari
onstage musicians of Kabuki
Chobo
the name of the gidayu (musico-narrative) duo on the kabuki stage and debayahsi are the other on-stage musicians
Geza
the offstage musicians in kabuki
Bunraku
an important for of Japanese puppetry from the 16th century
Gidayubushi
the vocal style most closely associated with the narrator in bunraku, characterized by heightened speech and lyrical songs
Noh
an important form of Japanese theater from the 14th century
Sageuta
a song in the lower range during noh plays
Ageuta
a song in the higher range during noh plays
Hayashi
the flute (nohkan) and drum (taiko, kotsuzumi, and otsuzumi, from lowest to highest pitched) ensemble in noh
Kakegoe
vocal drums used in particular during noh theater
Shakuhachi
end-blown flute
Koto
thirteen-stringed zither plucked with small finger-picks
Shamisen
three-stringed lutes with a pick
Sokyoku
koto music with or without voice
Kumiuta
sokyoku with voice and kotu
Danmono
instrument version of sokyoku (typically features the koto, shamisen, and shakuhachi)
Jiuta
hybrid form of sokyoku with or without a vocalist; consists of song 1 (maeuta), interlude, and song 2 (atouta)
Gagaku
6th century court music in Japan, played with a large ensemble; instruments were imported from China and adapted to local use (like the biwa, the who, and the ryuteki)
Jo-ha-kyu
a broad structure that characterizes many of the pieces in the gagaku repertory; means introduction-development-denoument
Yutkuk
Cantonese opera songs used to connect to the past and construct identity in the present
Bongwong
aria songs from the Cantonese opera; require the most skill
Siukuk and Paaiji
fixed tunes from the Cantonese opera; appropriate for karaoke; least dependent on interaction
Syutcheung
narrative songs from the Cantonese opera
Mestizo
music in Peru involving the blending of Amerindian and European beliefs and practices
Festival in Paucartambo
festival in Peru to honor the Virgin of Carmen
Chunchos
heroes; rich and powerful jungle Indians; feathered headdresses and spears; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe; flutes and drums
Qollas
uncivilized outsiders; unruly; traders of the high plateau; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe; orquestra tipica (Andean Harp, violins, accordion, ken as, and drums)
Saqras
devils; colonial Spanish costume; blonde wigs; monster or animal masks; dance a contra dance; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe
Doctores
parodies of lawyers and government officials; surrounding spectators beat them with law books to represent the exploitation of rural Peruvians; characters in a Peruvian dance troupe
Son
Huasteca ensemble consisting of violin, huapanguera (eight strings), and jarana (five strings)
Ranchera
Mariachi Jalisco; double and triple time together; ensemble consists of violins trumpets, and guitarron
Corrido
Conjuntos Nortenos ensemble consisting of an accordion, drum kit, bajo sexton, and bass
Aymara
a group living in Conima and the highlands of Peru; value the group over the individual; people do not confront each other publicly; mainly play flutes and drums; vocal music is relatively unimportant; musicians never play solos; flutes played with breathy tone to facilitate blending
Zarzuelas
Spanish-language operettas popular in Cuba; local contribution to the music scene
Tonadillas
more informal Spanish operetta played in Cuba; local contribution to the music scene
Cantradanza Habanera
English country dance originally brought to Haiti and then Cuba; gradually made more Cuban and turned into a light-classical genre; became a dance for intimate couples
Danzon
played on the same, light-classical sophistication of the contradanza, but took the Afro-Cuban rhythm that had been hinted at in the habanera; incorporated the cinquillo
Cinquillo
rhythmic ostinato incorporated in the danzon in Cuba
Charanga Francesa
replaced the orchestra tipica and consists of piano, bass, timbales, two violins and a flute; significant no claves
Bolero
a song about unrequited love in Cuba; slow dance genre characterized by bass-line; sung solo with guitar accompaniment
Rumba
secular Cuban dance; developed in the late 1800s as a form of entertainment in urban lower-class Afro-Cuban neighbors; ensemble consists of a lead vocalist, a chorus, and three percussionists
Guaguanco
style of rumba that consists of interlocking motives of the 2/3 clave, the plaits on the side of the drum, the basic patterns of the congas, and the improvised play of the quint conga; banned during 1888
Canto
narrative text part of the rumba
Montuno
call and response of the chorus/percussion in rumba; ritualized enactment of the male conquest
Vacunao
pelvic thrusting during the montuno
Columbia
a solo male dance of virtuosic character
Son
influenced by European and African worlds; on one hand the guitar, tres, quadratic verse forms, and bongos, clave, botija, marimbula, and guiro on the other; most popular dance genre in the 1930s; trumpet was added and the septet format took root
Paris
where rumba traveled after being banned on the streets in Cuba; things only changed after tourists began to demand rumba in top-tier clubs
Colonial Insignificance
the period during which Spain did little to establish Trinidad; Spain was busy installing "the Columbus machine" in more lucrative locations
Plantation Economy
influx of French planters and their slaves caused Trinidad to become an exporter of cocoa, coffee, cotton, and sugar; caused a shift from Spanish to French creole culture; Trinidad was ultimately ceded to the British
Calypso
word cariso was originally used to describe a French creole song; chant wells, assisted by drums, made stick fighting happen; drumming was banned in 1883 and stick fighting was banned in 1884; ban on stick fighting led men to become more involved in singing carisos
Tamboo Bamboo
ingenious substitute for drumming following the Musical Ordinance of 1883; consist of the boom, foule, and cutter
Boom
five feet long and stamped on the ground (deepest sound)
Foule
two pieces of bamboo about a foot long each struck end to end (higher pitch than boom)
Cutter
a thinner piece of bamboo (could be any length) held over the shoulder and struck with a stick
Single Tone
four lines, picong style of singing carisos
Double Tone
eight lines, style of singing carisos
Pasillo
the rhythmic grandfather of the modern calypso
Steelbands
hit the streets in the first post-WWII carnival; still outlawed and took people by surprise
Dreamtime
Aboriginal Australia; legendary beings wandered across the continent, singing the names of everything they encountered
Songlines
paths traced across the continent joining together all the totemic objects
Dijeridoo
of unknown origin; production of low pitched fundamental by loosely buzzing the lips, plus a higher tone with tighter lips; continuous drone with cyclical breathing; performances vary widely, some are monotone, others melismatic
Nitmiluk
a way of claiming the place as territory and reconstituting the Jawoyn nation; Jawoyn is about connecting to the rich legacy of Aboriginal life in a post-colonial conflict
Native American Music
concept of song as a relatively short unit; songs presented in large groups and as parts of elaborate ceremonies; generally monophonic vocal melodies; most vocables; uses a scale of about 3-4 notes (phrases start on higher pitch and gradually descend)
Strophic Songs
very short Native American songs that consist of one or two lines repeated many times
Plains Style
characterized by movements from high pitches to low pitches, rhythmic pulsations on the long notes, tension, strophic songs, and a descending line of three or four phrases
Eastern United States
greater variety of forms than other styles; rounder and more relaxed vocal style; sometimes a bit of call and response
Yuman
Southwestern United States and parts of Southern California; a phrase or short group of phrases is repeated several times but is interrupted occasionally by another, slightly higher and definitively contrastive section
Ghost Dance
these songs protested the encroachment of white Americans on their land and way of life; songs were believed to bring back the dead and save the water buffalo
Peyote Music
intertribal and based on hallucinogenic buttons of a cactus native to Mexico
1930 Western film
stereotypes of the drum; modal melodies in fourths or fifths
1950 Western films
demonstrated a change in the cowboy; cowboy was sensitive; focus on Native American culture; heroes fall in love with Native American women; Native American culture was shown to be dignified; composers used modal flutes and strings to romanticize the music
1970 Western films
Native American culture was authentic; composers tried to de-familiarize sounds
1980 and 1990 Western films
composers like John Barry and Ry Cooder abandoned modal and tom-tom idioms; used authentic Native American chants