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Chapter 20

The cns consists of

brain and spinal cord

the spinal cord is protected by

the backbone

the peripheral nervous system consists of

the nerves that branch from the CNS

two types of nerves in the pns

motor and sensory nerves

motor nerves

nerves that transfer commands from the CNS to muscles and other organs throughout the body

sensory nerves

nerves that trasmit information to the CNS concerning events in the body and environmental stimuli

the cns is covered by how many protective layers



the 3 protective layers covering the CNS

where is cerebrospinal fluid

it circulates between the space in the meninges and in the ventricles of the brain

blood vessels that supply the CNS are composed of tightly joined cells that form

the blood brain barrier

what does the blood-brain barrier do

prevents most microbe and large molecules in the blood from entering the cerebrospinal fluid that fills the subarachnoid space

csf (cerebrospinal fluid) acts as a

shock absorber

csf provides

nutrient and oxygen to the CNS and removes wastes

spinal tap

the surgical procedure for removing CSF from the lumbar region of the spinal cord

how do microorganisms enter the CNS 4 ways

through trauma, along peripheral nerves, and through the bloodstream and lymphatic system


an infection in the meninges


an infection of the brain

2 types of ccells of the nervous system

neuroglia and neurons


supportive cells of the NS that provide scaffolding, insulation, nutrition or defense


cells that generate and transmit nerve impulses

Grouped together, nerve cell bodies form a


structure of the neurons

nucleus, axon and dendrites

where is the nucleus of a neuron found

in the cell bodies of neurons


carry impulses toward the cell body


carries impulses away from the cell body

axonal transport

the cytoskeleton transport system within the axon

the terminal ends of axons have branches that form junctions called


synaptic cleft

the space between an axon and a neighboring cells

what does synaptic cleft do

stops the transmission of electrical signals

how do you bridge the gap of a synaptic cleft

an axon terminal releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft


chemical messengers

how do microorganisms get into the cns

through breaks in the barriers or through the PNS

how do microbes carried in the blood or lymph penetrate the blood-brain barrier

by infecting and killing cells of the meninges, causing meningitis

one bacterial disease of the nervous system

bacterial meningitis

four things that may cause meningitis

viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa

the 3 major causes of bacterial meningitis are

Haemophilus influenzae, streptococcus pneumonae, neisseria meningitidis

what is the most common cause of meningitis in children under four

Haemophilus influenzae

what kind of vaccine is available for Haemophilus influenzae

a conjugated vaccine directed against the capsular polysaccharide antigen

Neisseria Meningitis causes

Meningococcal Meningitis

Neisseria meningitis is a bacterium found in the


how does Neisseria Meningitis gain access to the meninges

through the bloodstream. may be found in leukocytes in the CSF

Streptococcus Pneumoniae causes

pneumococcal meningitis

S. pneumoniae is commonly found in the


name 4 other causes of meningitis

listeriosis, tetanus, botulism, leprosy

2 groups of people most susceptible to s. pneumoniae meningitis

hospitalized patients and young children

what is the most common cause of meningitis in adults

streptococcus meningitis

listeriosis is caused by (bacteria)

listeria monocytogenes

listeriosis is spread by


listeriosis affects mostly ___ and causes______

pregnant women; abortion or stillborn infant

tetanus is caused by

a localized infection of a wound by clostridium tetani

What type of bacteris is c. tetani

obligate anaerobic endospore gram-positive bacterium

where is c. tetani usually found

in the soil

C. tetani produces what kind of toxin


acquired immunity for tetanus comes from

dtp immunization

Botulism is caused by

an exotoxin produced by C. botulinum

what kind of bacteria is c. botulinum

obliigate anaerobic endspore gram-positive bacterium

what kind of toxin is botulism


what does the toxin from c. botulinum do

inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses

leprosy is caused by

mycobacterium leprae

besides leprosy, what else does mycobacterium leprae cause

Hansen's disease

how is mycobacterium leprae cultured

in armadillos and mouse footpads

the tuberculoid form of leprosy is characterized by

loss of sensation in the skin surrounded by nodules

the progressive form of leprosy is also called


in the progressive form of leprosy the disease is characterized by

disseminated nodules and tissue necrosis occurs

how is leprosy spread

by prolonged contact with exudates

how are patients with leprosy treated

with chemotherapy

viral meningitis aka

aseptic meningitis

which is the mildest type of meningitis

viral meningitis

viral meningitis results from ______ which are transmitted via ________ to infect the ______

from infection of enteroviruses which are transmitted via fecal contamination of food, water or hands and spread via the bloodstream to infect the meninges

best prevention for viral meningitis

hand washing

what are the reservoirs for poliovirus


how is poliovirus transmitted

by the ingestion of water contaminated with feces

what does the salk vaccine involve

injection of formalin inactivated viruses and boosters every few years

the sabin contains

three attenuated live strains of poliovirus and is administered orally

how can polio be eliminated

through vaccination

how can rabies be contracted

through the bite of a rabid animal, by inhalation of aerosols, or invasion through minute skin abrasions

where does rabies multiply

in skeletal muscle and connectve tissue

rabies is a


four viral diseases of th NS

Viral meningitis, poliomyelitis, rabies, arboviral encephalitis

what isi the best way to control encephalitis

control of the vector

arboviruses that case encephalitis are transmitted by


one protozoan disease of the nervous system

african trypanosomiasis

african trypanosomiasis is caused by

the protozoan trypanosoma

is there a vaccine for african trypanosomiasis if not why not

no because the protozoan is able to change it's surface antigens

2 ns disases caused by prions that are transferable from one animal to another

sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy

2 human diseasees similar to scrabi

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru

kuru occurs in

isolated groups of cannibals who eat brains

chronic fatigue syndrome may be triggered by

viral illnesses such as infections mononucleosis, Q fever, lyme disease

chronic fatigue syndrome aka

myalgic encephalomyelitis

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