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nerves that transfer commands from the CNS to muscles and other organs throughout the body
nerves that trasmit information to the CNS concerning events in the body and environmental stimuli
where is cerebrospinal fluid
it circulates between the space in the meninges and in the ventricles of the brain
blood vessels that supply the CNS are composed of tightly joined cells that form
the blood brain barrier
what does the blood-brain barrier do
prevents most microbe and large molecules in the blood from entering the cerebrospinal fluid that fills the subarachnoid space
how do microorganisms enter the CNS 4 ways
through trauma, along peripheral nerves, and through the bloodstream and lymphatic system
how do you bridge the gap of a synaptic cleft
an axon terminal releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
how do microbes carried in the blood or lymph penetrate the blood-brain barrier
by infecting and killing cells of the meninges, causing meningitis
the 3 major causes of bacterial meningitis are
Haemophilus influenzae, streptococcus pneumonae, neisseria meningitidis
what kind of vaccine is available for Haemophilus influenzae
a conjugated vaccine directed against the capsular polysaccharide antigen
how does Neisseria Meningitis gain access to the meninges
through the bloodstream. may be found in leukocytes in the CSF
2 groups of people most susceptible to s. pneumoniae meningitis
hospitalized patients and young children
the tuberculoid form of leprosy is characterized by
loss of sensation in the skin surrounded by nodules
in the progressive form of leprosy the disease is characterized by
disseminated nodules and tissue necrosis occurs
viral meningitis results from ______ which are transmitted via ________ to infect the ______
from infection of enteroviruses which are transmitted via fecal contamination of food, water or hands and spread via the bloodstream to infect the meninges
what does the salk vaccine involve
injection of formalin inactivated viruses and boosters every few years
how can rabies be contracted
through the bite of a rabid animal, by inhalation of aerosols, or invasion through minute skin abrasions
is there a vaccine for african trypanosomiasis if not why not
no because the protozoan is able to change it's surface antigens
2 ns disases caused by prions that are transferable from one animal to another
sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy
chronic fatigue syndrome may be triggered by
viral illnesses such as infections mononucleosis, Q fever, lyme disease
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