8 terms

Social Influence- Obedience

Obedience to authority is what?
a type of social influence where someone acts in response to a direct order from authority
What are the main differences between obedience and conformity?
Obedience to authority does not have to include a group of people.
The social influence in obedience is from someone with a higher power rather than from a peer group.
In conformity there is no explicit demand to act in a certain way, where as in obedience the orders are direct.
we usually use obedience as an excuse 'i only did as he said' but we usually deny conformity.
What drove Millgram to carry out his infamous study on obedience?
WWII and how the nazi population could obey such horrific orders.
What was Millgram's aim in the study?
to investigate how far people would be prepared to go in obeying an authority figure.
What was the method of Millgram's study?
-Forty men aged from 20 to 50, from a range of occupations, volunteered to participate.
- In Yale
- told they were looking at how punishment affected recall
- there was one naive participant and one stooge, an actor who would always be the learner.
-the teacher (the naive participant) would be seated in front of the shock generator that ranged from shocks of 50 to 450 volts!
-The job of the teacher was to test the stooge on word pairs and every time a mistake was made, he would be shocked.
-before the experiment the teacher was given up to 45 volts of shock.
What were the results and conclusions of Millgram study?
the results showed that all 100% of the participants went up to 300 volts. But 65% of them went up to the very end of the shock generator.
This shows clearly that ordinary people are capable of following orders even in the results were lethal.
Evaluation of the Millgram study?
Ethical issues:
-right to withdraw
-protection of the participants
-mental strain on the participants
-lack of debriefing
furthermore it was only men taking part, cannot generalise to both sexes.
But ecologically valid, although in a more serious situation based around cruelty to others under guidance of a higher power.
list some situational factors affecting the obedience to authority? how do these affect obedience?
Location, obedience dropped to 47.5% when the loaction of the study was moved from the prestigious Yale university to an old run down building. this therefore suggests that location plays a factor in obedience but not a crucial one.
proximity of the learner, the learner was in the same room as the teacher at a and a half feet, the obedience dropped to 40%. When the teacher was required to force the hand of the learner onto the button 'electrocuting' himself. the obedience rate dropped to 30%. the more direct the persons experience with the victim the less they obey.
proximity of the authority figure, the experimenter left the room and instructions were given over the phone. this caused obedience to drop to 20.5%. in some cases the participant pretended to give a shock, or gave a lower one.
Social support, the participant was a member of a team of three teachers, the other teachers were stooges. obedience dropped to 10%.
A peer administers the shock, the participant was paried with a stooge who administered the shocks. obedience rose to 92.5%.