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What are pyrogens?

Metabolic byproducts of microorganisms

An example would be?

Endotoxins; from lipopolysaccaride cell wall of gram - bacteria

A limulus test is used to test for?


What 4 types of "vegetable-like" oils can be used in parenterals

Peanut, cottonseed, sesame, soybean

What 2 other types of oleaginous vehicles can be used in parenterals

Ethyl oleate, isopropyl myristate

Can purified water USP be used for injection?

No only water for injection can be used

What kind of preservative is used in bacteriostatic sodium chloride injection

Benzyl alcohol

What is a contraindication of benzyl alcohol

Use in a newborn due to toxicity

Freeze drying is based on


Small volume parenterals has a volume of

25-50 mL

Small volume parenterals require no


Which is more stable

Small volume

What is good about large volume

More flexible but requires manipulation

What are large volume used for?

Maintenance or replacement therapy

Lyophilization is what

Freeze drying method

Steam method means using the


What are the parameters of the autoclave

121 degrees C ; 15 lbs pressure ; 20 minutes

Dry-heat is

Similar to steam but has less steam and more heat

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