10 terms

Organizational Culture

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What is the difference between espoused and enacted values?
Espoused
-Represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization

•Enacted values
-Represent the values and norms that actually are exhibited or converted into employee behavior
Describe the process of organizational change?
1.Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization
2.The design of physical space, work
environments, and buildings
3.Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings
4.Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors
5.Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),
and promotion criteria


1.Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events
2.The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control
3.Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises
4.The workflow and organizational structure
5.Organizational systems and procedures
6.Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people
What are observable artifacts?
-Consist of the physical manifestation of an organization's culture
-Acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, and decorations
-Also includes visible behavior
What are basic assumptions in culture?
-Constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior
-Are unobservable and highly resistant to change
What is organizational cultue?
•Set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments
•Three important characteristics:
-It is passed on to new employees through the process of socialization
-It influences our behavior at work
-It operates at different levels
4 functions of organizational culture expanded:
1)Organizational identity - A sense of who or what the company is.
2)Collective commitment - Get employees on board with the identity or company vision.
3)Social system stability - The extent to which the work environment is perceived as positive and reinforcing; the extent to which conflict and change are effectively managed.
4)Sense-making device - Help employees understand why the organization does what it does and how it intends to accomplish its goals.
What is the competing values framework?
•Provides a practical way for managers to understand, measure, and change organizational behavior
•Two dimensions:
-Whether an organization focuses its attention and efforts on internal dynamics and employees or outward toward its external environment and its customers and shareholders
-The organization's preference for flexibility and discretion or control and stability
What are values?
-Concepts or beliefs that pertain to desirable end states, transcend situations, guide selection of behavior, and are ordered by relative importance

•Can be espoused or enacted
Is there one culture that is better than the others and increase productivty and satisfaction?
1.There is not a clear pattern of relationships between organizational culture and outcomes such as service quality, customer satisfaction, and an organization's financial performance
2.Mergers frequently fail due to incompatible cultures
What are the four components of organizational culture?
•Set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments
•Three important characteristics:
-It is passed on to new employees through the process of socialization
-It influences our behavior at work
-It operates at different levels
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