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Chemistry Unit Unit 4
Terms in this set (34)
List three differences between in the physcial properties between metals and nonmetals?
Metals are shiny, malleable and good conducters whereas nonmetals are dull, brittle, and insulators.
3. An element has an electron configuration of [Kr]5s24d7. Determine whether this element is a metal or a nonmetal without looking at a periodic table. How can this be determined?
It is a metal because it it only has two valence (outer level) electrons. Metals tend to have 3 or less valence electrons.
How do metals and nonmetals differ in terms of how they lose/gain electrons.
Metals tend to lose electrons and nonmetals tend to gain electrons.
Why are most of the elements on the left and in the middle of the periodic table metals?
Because most of them have 3 or less valence electrons.
Halogens tend to gain electrons when they react making them nonmetals. How many electrons do the halogens tend to gain? Why?
Halogens tend to gain one electron so that they can get a full outer level and be stable.
What is a semiconductor?
A substance that conducts electricity, but poorly.
measurement from the nucleus to the outermost electron shell
The energy required for an element to lose an electron. (The more energy required the harder it is for the element to lose an electron.)
The ability for an element to attract electrons from other elements towards its nucleus.
A period is the name given to a horizontal row of the periodic table
up and down
An energy state in the atomic model which describes where an electron will likely be.
The force of attraction between positive and negative charges
An electron in one of the outer shells of an atom that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
Where are metals on the periodic table?
everything on the left side of the staircase starting with [B]
Where are non-metals on the periodic table?
everything on the right side of as and te (stair case)
semi- metals and place on periodic table
An element whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid non-metals
Everything that is a metal and non-metal (staircase)
akali metals ?
first column except [H]
second column next to akali metals
first 2 columns
next 9 columns
next 6 columns
everything in the d block except la and ac
period is a...
row going across the periodic table
a group is a...
column on the periodic table
atomic radius trend for going across a period (left to right)
atomic radius decreases because when you have the same number of orbitals the element with more electrons and protons will have more attraction and it will make the element smaller (more coulombic attraction)
atomic radius trend for going down a period (top to bottom)
atomic radius increases because you add an orbital each time you move down the periodic table. Adding an orbital makes the element larger.
electronegativity trend for going across a period (left to right
Electronegativity increases becauses the closer an element is to having a full valence of 8, the more it
will want to gain electrons from other elements in order to have a full outer shell.
electronegativity trend for going down a period (top to bottom)
Electronegativity decreases since the elements get larger as you move down the periodic table, it makes the attraction for other electrons weaker since the distance for them to travel is longer.
ionization energy trend for going across a period (left to right)
Ionization energy increases because the farther right you go the more protons and electrons elements
have. These extra protons and electrons create more attraction which makes electrons harder to remove.
Ionization energy trend for going down a period (top to bottom)
Ionization energy decreases since more orbitals are added each time you go down the periodic table, the
elements keep getting larger. The larger the element is, the easier it is to remove an electron since there is less attraction.