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Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1
Terms in this set (48)
having to do with an organism's physical process
having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
an assumption about behavior that is tested through scientific research
a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena
the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
discovering ways to use scientific finding to accomplish practical goals
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experience
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
a psychologist who studied the function (rather than the structure) of the consciousness
a psychologist who studies how unconscious and conflicts determine human behavior
a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
a psychologist who believes that each person has freedom in directing his or he future and achieving person growth
a psychologist who studies how we process, store, and use information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
a scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals
a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
a psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of living
a branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological,personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
A psychologist who is concerned with helping students learn
a psychologist who may work in a mental health or social welfare agency
a psychologist who used psychological concepts to make the workplace a more satisfying environment for employee and managers
a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
What can Psychology help you gain?
1) A better understanding of your own behavior
2) Knowledge about how psychologists study human and animal behavior
3) Practical applications for enriching your life.
What are the four goals of Psychology?
4) Influence behavior
The first goal for any scientist or psychologist is to describe or gather information about the behavior being studied and to present what is known.
Psychologists are not content to simply state the facts, they also seek to explain why people behave as they do. These explanations are proposed as hypotheses.
A HYPOTHESIS is an educated guess about some phenomenon.
research studies are designed to test each hypothesis which constructs a more complex explanation called theories.
A THEORY is usually a complex explanation based on findings from a large number of experimental studies
The third goal of psychologists is to predict, as a result of accumulated knowledge what organisms will do and, in the case of humans, what they will think or feel in various situations.
By studying descriptive and theoretical accounts of past behaviors, psychologists can predict future behaviors.
Some psychologists seek to influence behavior in helpful ways by doing basic science - conducting studies with the long-term goal of finding out more about human behavior.
Basic Science - think "Understand - Not Fix"
Other psychologists use applied science and are more interested in discovering ways to use what we already know about people to benefit others.
Applied Science - think "Fix - by Understanding"
The Scientific Basis of Psychology
- To ensure that data are collected accurately, psychologists rely on the scientific
- In psychology, facts are based on data (information).
- The data are obtained from methods such as experiments, surveys, and case studies.
- This means that psychologists reach their conclusions by identifying a specific problem or questions, formulating a hypothesis, collecting data through observation and experimentation, and analyzing the data.
Studied "why crime occurs"
Believed behavior was the result of the shape of the head
Phrenology- the practice of examiningbumps on a person's skull to determinethat person's intellect and character traits
Inspired scientists to consider the braininstead of the heart as responsible forhuman behavior
5th and 6th Centuries
Greeks studied human behavior and decided people were rational and not dominated by gods
Greeks set the stage for the development of sciences
published idea that the earth was not the center of the universe, the sun was.
Used a telescope to confirm Copernicus' predictions
proposed a link between a body and mind
studies the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
is acknowledged for establishing modern psychology as a separate field of study
taught the first class in Psychology at Harvard University— Wrote the first textbook "The Principles of Psychology"
Sir Frances Galton
Wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior
5 Contemporary Approaches
Interested in the unconscious mind
Used the technique of free association, which is still used today
Believed that dreams are expressions of themost primitive unconscious urges
His view on the unconscious ¡s a powerfulinfluence and controversial
Believed that psychology should only concern itself with the observable facts of behavior
Introduced the concept of reinforcement
a response to a behavioral stimuli that increases the likelihood for the behavior to be repeated
Ivan Palvolv: Russian Scientist
Salivating dog experiment
Pavlov rang a tuning fork each time he gave adog some meat powder.
The dog would normally salivate when thepower reached his mouth
He repeated the experiment, the dog wouldsalivate when it heard the ring
The dog was conditioned to associate soundwith food
Example of Humanistic Psychologists
Abraham Moslow, Carl Rogers, and RolloMay are humanistic psychologists
Believe that behavior ¡s more than asimple response to a stimulus
Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, Leon Festinger.
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