Terms in this set (100)
Who was Randolph White?
Leader of the 1st attempt of colonization in the new world of England; Roanoke
What were the reasons the colonies settled in N.America?
New start for poor people
Will bring in more money for England
Expand England's power
More money off of gold and silver
What was France reason to settle in N.America?
What was the Northwest Passage?
It made a bridge between continents which allowed passage to and from each other
Who was in charge of Jamestown?
What did John Smith say to make the people work?
"no work,no food"
What is a charter?
A charter is the grant of authority of rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified
What did the Joint-Stock Company do?
Funded English colonies
Investors bought stocks which in turn supported the colonists
Investors got wealth back from the colony's economy
Responsible for maintaining colony
What was the House of Burgesses?
was the first democratically-elected legislative body in the British American colonies; established representative government in Virginia
What are indentured servants?
people paid to go to New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years and after time was done they were free
What was a royal colony?
a type of colonial administration of the British overseas territories; ruled by a monarch
What was Bacon's Rebellion?
was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley
Who were the Puritans?
a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices
Who were the Pilgrims?
early settlers of the Plymouth Colony
What was Mayflower Compact?
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony
What was the pilgrims fleeing from?
religious persecution by King James of England
What were the Salem Witch Trials?
The trials are noted for the hysterical atmosphere in which they were conducted; many townspeople were widely suspected of witchcraft on flimsy evidence
Who was Roger Williams?
Founded Providence; Believes that people should have freedom of religion
What did Anne Hutchinson believe in?
Thought people could read and interpret the bible for themselves
What was King Philips War?
last major effort by the Indians of southern New England to drive out the English settlers
Who were the Quakers?
Religious group persecuted for their beliefs
What is mercantilism?
Belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism
What is the Balance of Trade?
The difference between the value of imports and the value of exports
What were the Navigation Acts?
Were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between the colonies and any country except Britain
What is a self government?
Government of a country by its own people, especially after having been a colony
What is Salutary Neglect?
Lightly enforcing as long as the colonists showed economic loyalty
What is the difference of Econmies between North, South and Mid-Atlantic?
North - trade with Europe
South - farming tobacco
Mid-Atlantic - breadbasket colonies
What are apprentices?
younger men or women who follow in the footsteps of a master in whatever trade they are learning
Women usually stayed home and took care of the kids and the house; Women got a bigger role during wars; Took over businesses; Helped as nurses on the field of battle; Some even picked up guns of the fallen and fired back
What are immigrants?
people who came to live in a different country because of financial, economic etc. reasons.
What was the issue in the French and Indian war?
feud over who controlled land; Ohio River Valley
Who won the French and Indian War?
What was the Albany Plan of Union?
Plan to create a unified government for the 13 colonies
What is the militia?
a military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency
What officially ended the French and Indian war?
treaty of Paris
What did the Proclamation of 1763 do?
Banned settlement in New Land; it belonged to Natives
What was Pontiac's Rebellion?
Created a confederacy of lose Indian tribes to stop US expansion
Who created Pontiac's Rebellion?
Created by Tecumseh
What did the Sugar Act do?
lower tax on molasses; taxes other goods such as sugar
What was the Stamp Act?
tax that was put on every piece of printed paper, Mostly Legal Documents
Taxed glasses,paints,paper, and tea imports in hopes of decreasing imperial expenses
Act was put in place which authorized the East India Company to bypass American wholesalers which would make English tea cheaper then smuggled tea from Holland
Acts passed by parliament as a punishment to colonists have the Boston Tea Party which was when they tossed the tea into Boston Harbor
Who are the sons of liberty?
The Sons of Liberty was an organization of American colonists that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies
What does boycott mean?
To boycott means to stop buying or using the goods or services or a certain company or country as a protest
What happened at the Boston Massacre?
British Army soldiers killed several Boston citizens because they threw snowballs, sticks, rocks, etc at them
What was the Boston Tea Party?
colonists dressed up as Indians and threw many chests of tea into the harbor to protest against British taxes on tea and the monopoly the East India Company
What was the first continental congress?
meeting of delegates from 12 out of 13 colonies
What was the Battle of Lexington and Concord?
First military engagements of the American Revolutionary War
What was the Revolutionary War?
tensions between residents of Great Britain's 13 North American colonies and the colonial government.
Lexington and Concord started war; colonists fighting for independance; France entered the American Revolution on the side of the colonists
What ended the Revolutionary War?
the battle of Yorktown the british surrendered
Who was Thomas Paine?
Political philosopher and writer; Wrote "Common Sense" to advocate American Independence
What was Common Sense?
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine; Persuasive writing to leave G.B.
What did the Second Continental Congress do?
declared that the American Revolutionary war had began
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
attempt to create peace with Great Britain
What did Declaration of Independence do?
announced that thirteen American colonies had regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states and no longer apart of the British Empire, and formed the United States of America
What are the 3 natural rights?
life, liberty, property
Who were loyalists and patriots?
loyalists - Wealthy Plantation owners
patriots - Merchants
What type of warfare did the militia use?
What did the battle of bunker hill do for the colonists?
big confidence boost
Battle of Trenton?
surprise attack on the Hessians on Christmas night
What did saratoga do to the british?
made them change war strategy
What is a blockade?
An act or means of sealing off a place to prevent goods from entering or leaving
What does profiteering mean?
Make or seek to make an excessive or unfair profit, especially illegally or in a black market
What does inflation mean?
A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money
What is patriotism?
a devotion to one's own country and concern for its defense
What was the impact of the revolution?
Proved that the "invincible" British army can be beaten
Allowed the Colonies to be a free nation on its own
Gained the colonies two new allies- France and Spain
A driving motivation for the colonies to work their hardest to be a great country
Who was the first gov. of the US?
Articles of Confederation
What is a democracy?
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible member of a state, typically through elected representatives
What is a republic?
A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
What was Shay's Rebellion?
Mob of Western farmers fight to remove the tax. → expresses the problems of the AoC; mass militia is there to respond; missing laws to stop these people
What is specie?
Gold Coins used in addition to printed paper money
What was the continental congress?
the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the Constitution of the United States was framed
What was the Virginia Plan?
Big state plan; Bicameral Congress; 2 houses; lower house elected by the people; upper house elected by the lower house
What was the New Jersey Plan?
Small State Plan; One house congress with equal representatives
What was the Great Compromise?
One based off population
One based off elected members of 2 reps from each state
What was the 3/5 compromise?
It was decided that ⅗ of the slave population in a state would be counted
The Executive Branch
The President and his Cabinet
Veto power and Executive Powers
Commander and Chief
Appoint Supreme Court Judges
Call Congress together
The Supreme Court- holds the least power
Interpret and review laws
Cases must be brought to them
Congress- holds the most power
majority vote passes law override veto
⅔ vote to override declares of war
Try Supreme Court and President- Impeachment
What is the electoral congress?
A body of people representing the states of the U.S. who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president
What does ratify mean?
Sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid
What is an inauguration?
The beginning or introduction of a system, policy, or period
What was the XYZ affair?
U.S. sends 3 diplomats to France
Make peace & stop stealing ships
Met by 3 French men, Mr. X, Y, Z
Make a bribe or tribute in order to speak to the executive branch
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Raise the residency requirement citizenship 5 to 7 yrs→ 14 yrs
Pres. has power to jail or deport any alien/non-citizen
Press cannot say anything "untrue" about the gov
people do not like these acts
What are judicial acts?
Congress decided it could regulate jurisdiction of all Fed courts
What is judicial review?
the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary
What is a reservation?
land reserved for American Indians given to them by the US, or other countries to keep peace with them
Who was Little Turtle?
Leader of a Confederation of Indian tribes
Starts to push for peace. Loses his Influence/position to indians who will fight
What is impressment?
When France and British kidnapped US merchants and forced them to fight for their country
What is the Hartford Convention?
Fed Party meeting to discuss problems of War of 1812
⅔ act for something in Congress to be passed as a law, for a region to become a state, or to declare war
Who is Andrew Jackson?
General at the Battle of New Orleans
Who created the cotton gin?
What did the Adams-Onis treaty do?
Spain gives the US Florida; Gives up claims in Oregon
What was the Panic of 1837?
financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s
What is the nullification crisis?
South Carolina called the Tariff of 1816 unconstitutional; wanted it nullified
Who created the national bank?
What was the spoil system?
practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
What was Trail of Tears?
the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma.
What was the Missouri Compromise?
Slavery would not be restricted in Missouri and Maine would be admitted as a free state
Congress agreed that as territories in the west were added, slavery would not be allowed north of 36 degrees 30' - southern border of Missouri
The issue of slavery in the Louisiana Territory is pushed off into the future
Maintains the balance of free/slave states in the Senate
slave states and free states will always balance out, there is always the same number