61 terms

Mitosis and Meosis test

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disease caused by uncontrolled cell division
cancer
chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
homologous chromosomes
a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes
diploid
egg cells and sperm cells
gametes
a cell that contains 1 set of chromosomes
haploid
a diploid cell made from the fusion of two haploid cells
zygote
information that determines our characteristics and directs the cell activities
DNA
picture of cell
karyotype
division of the cytoplasm
cytokinesis
chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
Anaphase and Anaphase 2
Nuclear membrane dissolves and spindle fibers appear
Prophase and Prophase 2
Two homologous paired up form a
tetrad
pairing up of homologous chromosomes
synapsis
two homologs exchange the tips of their chromatids
crossing over
a segment of DNA that gets inherited from parents
gene
body cells- not a sex cell
somatic cells
chromosomes pair 1-22
autosomes
chromosome pair 23
sex chromosomes
Protein structures that separate chromosomes in anaphase
Spindle Fibers
what is the goal of mitosis
to produce 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical to parent cell
what cells undergo mitosis
somatic cells
what circumstances dictate when a cell will divide by mitosis
growth, repair, size
what is the purpose of meiosis
to make haploid sperm and egg
how many daughter cells are their in mitosis? how do they compare to parent cell?
2, genetically identical
how many daughter cells are there in meiosis? How do they compare to parent cell
4, half original chromosome #
difference between mitosis and meiosis 2
# of chromosomes
difference between diploid and haploid
diploid has 2 sets of chromosomes (46) and haploid has 1 set (23)
homologous chromosomes pair up and form a tetrad
prophase 1
spindle fibers move homolgous chromosomes to opposite sides
anaphase 1
nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed
telophase 2
chromosomes line up along the equator, not in homologous pairs
metaphase 2
crossing-over occurs
prophase 1
chromatids separate
anaphase 2
homologs line up along the equator
metaphase 1
cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed
telophase 1 `
chromosomes each consisting got two chromatids are becoming visible
prophase
chromosomes are replicating and among their sister chromatid
interphase
spindle fibers are attached to the chromosomes at their centromere in the middle of the cell
metaphase
the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell and start to disappear
telophase
the sister chromatids get pulled apart
anaphase
last few steps before division. Microtubules are formed
interphase
the nucleus starts to reform
telophase
60 percent of mitosis is spent in this stage
prophase
a cell spends most of its life in this stage
interphase
the nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes are condensing and thickening
prophase
the point where two sister chromatids are attached to each other is the
chiasmata
homologous chromosomes get pulled apart towards opposite ends of the cell
anaphase 1
a diploid number of chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids line up at the equator
metaphase 1
a haploid cell where the spindle fibers appear and reach for the chromosomes while the nucleus disappear
prophase 2
homologous chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell and the nuclear envelope starts to reform, the spindle fibers disappear.
telophase 1
sister chromatids get pulled apart by the spindle fibers
Anaphase 2
synapsis occurs and tetrads form
prophase 1
four haploid cells are produced
telophase 2
what type of cells undergo meiosis
cells in ovaries/ testes
What do G1, S, G2, stand for and what happens in them
G1- cell grown
S- DNA replicates and form sister chromatids
G2- spindle fibers assemble
When does DNA replicate and form sister chromatids
synthesis
what is a centromere
point where the chromatids attach
3 reasons a cell will undergo mitosis
growth, repair, cell size
what is the difference in cytokenisis in plant and animal cell
in plant plate forms and in animal cleavage furrow forms
what is a somatic cell and is it haploid or diploid
a body cell and it is diploid
longest stage of a cells life cycle
interphase
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