36 terms

organic chemistry

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covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Organic compounds
the covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
catenation
are composed of only carbon and hydrogen; they are the simplest organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures are called
isomers
indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms
structural formula
also called "constitutional isomers," are isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders
Structural isomers
are isomers in which the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different
Geometric isomers
are hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom in the molecule forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms
Saturated hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds are
alkanes
are alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
Cycloalkanes
are groups of atoms that are formed when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule
Alkyl groups
is a fossil fuel composed primarily of alkanes containing one to four carbon atoms.
Natural gas
is a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons that varies greatly in composition
Petroleum
are hydrocarbons in which not all carbon atoms have four single covalent bonds
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
are hydrocarbons that contain double covalent bonds
Alkenes
Hydrocarbons with triple covalent bonds are
alkynes
are hydrocarbons that have six-membered carbon rings and delocalized electrons
Aromatic hydrocarbons
is the primary aromatic hydrocarbon
Benzene
is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound
functional group
are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups; general formula for ___ is R-OH
Alcohols
are organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine—are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon; R-X
Alkyl halides
are organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen; R-O-R'; used as solvents bc not very reactive
Ethers
are organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a carbon-atom chain
Aldehydes
are organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain
Ketones
are organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3; unshared electron pair on the nitrogen atom makes amines act as weak bases in aqueous solutions
Amines
are organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group
Carboxylic acids
are organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group
Esters
A____ is one in which one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms in a molecule
substitution reaction
An____is one in which two parts of a molecule are added to an unsaturated molecule, increasing the saturation of the molecule
addition reaction
A ____ is one in which two molecules or parts of the same molecule combine
condensation reaction
An ____ is one in which a simple molecule, such as water or ammonia, is formed from adjacent carbon atoms of a larger molecule
elimination reaction
are large molecules made of many small units joined to each other through organic reactions
Polymers
Small units of polymers are
monomers
A polymer made from two or more different monomers is a
copolymer
is a polymer formed by addition reactions between monomers that contain a double bond
addition polymer
is a polymer formed by condensation reactions; monomers of condensation polymers must contain two functional groups
condensation polymer