the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. (Fritz Heider)
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Central Route Persuasion
this occurs when interesting people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. (more likely to influence behavior)
Peripheral Route Persuasion
this occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. (quick and easy)
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. (Leon Festinger)
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
Implicit Racial Associations
Greenwald; even people who deny harboring racial prejudice may carry negative associations.
Harber; White University Women grading essays were more likely to give Black writers lower grades.
Example: Black faces appear to be more criminal to police officers; the more black, the more criminal.
Reflexive Bodily Responses
Studies have detected implicit prejudice in people's facial-muscle responses and in the activation of their amygdala (emotion processing).
"Us"-people with whom we share a common identity.
"Them"-those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
the tendency to favor our own group.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction; a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.