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Gene Expression, Translation, and Diagnostic Methods
Terms in this set (25)
Cell Decision Making...
-involves altering the profile of transcription, which allows the cell to start expressing a different subset of genes.
If you're cancer, you want to...
1) stop expressing Anti Growth Factors (Smads)
2) stop expressing Death Factors (processed via p53)
3) manipulate Growth Factors (via Ras, which is one of the most famous oncogenes)
DNA is (charge), while Histones are (charge)
Histones=+ and rich in Lysine and Arginine
Acetylation Activity and Residues
Transcriptional Activation, Lysine
Methlyation Activity and Residues
Reversible Suppression of Trancription, Arginine or Lysine
Phosphorylation Activity and Residues
Usually Transcriptional Activation, Serine
Aconitase and the Ferritin mRNA
When Fe is present, Aconitase is RELEASED from the 5' end of the Ferritin mRNA and Ferritin is made.
Aconitase and the Transferrin Receptor mRNA
When Fe is present, Aconitase is RELEASED from the 3' end of the Transferrin Receptor mRNA and the Receptor is NOT made.
TIBC is essentially....
Transferrin in the Serum
TIBC is elevated dramatically in individuals with...
How do genetically identical cells end up being so different?
RNAi! This is a major regulatory mechanism affecting gene expression.
...the stability and translational efficiency of mRNA
RNAi is involved in targeting...
modifications to specific chromosomal domains, such as centromeres.
RNAI is responsible for initiating...in mammals
X-Chromosome Inactivation through the X-Inactive Specific Transcript (XIST). Ex: Calico Cats
Regulating Gene Expression means...
...making the right amount of each protein.
-bad situations include underexpression, overexpression, misfolding, missense mutations, etc.
Diseases caused by Protein Misfolding
CF, Sickle Cell Anemia, Amyloid Diseases.
Excess amounts of normal proteins or normal amounts of unstable proteins are prone to form...
...aggregates or amyloid deposits.
"Apple green birefringence" means...
"this question is about amyloid."
Secreted, extracellular proteins form massive amounts of aggregates in various tissues. The presence of the abnormal, often vast, protein aggregates can disrupt organ function.
Amyloid fibrils are composed of...
...extended sandwiches of b-sheets.
The stability of duplexes depends on...
temperature, pH, ionic strength, the presence of polar solvents (more salt=more stability), and the sequence of the bases (G-C pairs are more stable than A-T or A-U).
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Used to test a biological sample for the presence of nucleic acids complementary to a probe molecule with a known sequence.
Allows detection and amplification of specific DNA or RNA molecules in a complex sample. This can be done in a quantitative manner to determine how many target molecules are present, or it can be used to amplify a target to perform other tests like DNA sequencing.
Using Antibodies to test a complex biological sample for the presence of specific proteins.
Used to examine the size, internal complexity, DNA or RNA content, and antigens present in complex mixtures of cells to determine the type and abundance of different cell types.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anemias by Pathoma
Data Acquisition EBM
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