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Terms in this set (60)
What would happen if a mutation prevented the differentiation step between promyelocytes and myelocytes?
Promyelocytic Leukemia! Promyelocytes would be seen in blood smears, but won't be able to differentiate into anything useful. Involves Retinoic Acid inserting itself.
ALL Blood Cells, except ____, are normally produced in bone marrow.
Activated T Lymphocytes express which CDs?
CD45 CD3 CD25: part of the IL-2 Receptor. It helps one identify T Cells that have already been activated and are able to actively divide.
All T Cells express which CDs?
CD3: a cell surface protein that associates with the TCR CD45
All White Blood Cells express which CD?
CD45: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase
Anemia, in the most general terms, means...
-reduction in the number of circulating RBCs/ml
-reduction in the amount of Hemoglobin/RBC
B Cells express which CD?
CD19: used in cell sorters, recognized the complement protein iC3b, and actives B cells.
Band 3, the anion antiporter, facilitates the exchange of what two molecules across the RBC plasma membrane?
HCO 3 - and Cl - (Bicarbonate and Chloride). Aquaporins are present as well and facilitate water movement.
Bone Marrow Aspirate vs Bone Marrow Core
-Bone Marrow Aspirate: examining cell types and counts . Tells you that the Trilineage is normal!
-Bone Marrow Core: examining overall bone marrow organization . Examining ratio between Megakaryocytes, Sinusoids, and smaller cell type precursors.
Bone Marrow Core Sample Deductions
-The older you are, the less cellular the sample should be (more fat).
Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis is termed?
Cells are born in...
Bone Marrow, but leave and function in the entire body.
Central Blood Issues are tested via...
Examination of Hematopoietic Bone Marrow via Biopsy of Iliac Spine
Central Hematopoietic Tissue vs Peripheral Hematopoietic Tissue
Central is MARROW, Peripherial is everything else.
Cluster of Differentiation (CD)
Antigens that can be recognized by monoclonal antibodies. They differ from cell to cell!
Cytokines vs Transcription Factors in regards to Hematopoiesis
Cytokines influence the expression of Transcription Factors. Transcription Factors determine lineage and differentiation choices.
Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes express which CDs?
CD45, CD3, and CD8
Explain Adult Intestinal Tissue Homeostasis.
Crypts contain Stem Cells, whose niche/survival is provided by surrounding Paneth Cells. ISEMFs (Interstitial Subepithelial Myofibroblasts) regulate the division of the Stem Cells and Transit Amplyfying Cells (which are directly above the Stem Cells). -As TAs migrate out of the Crypt, they differentiate into the different cells of the Villi (Paneth Cells, Goblet Cells, Enteroendocrine Cells, and Enterocytes)
HCO 3 - and Cl - (Bicarbonate and Chloride) movement in RBC near Lungs?
HCO 3 - goes into RBC, Cl - goes into Blood Plasma.
HCO 3 - and Cl - (Bicarbonate and Chloride) movement in RBC near Tissues?
HCO 3 - goes into Blood Plasma, Cl - goes into RBC.
Helper T Lymphocytes express which CDs?
CD45, CD3, and CD4
Hematocrit usual values?
Between 35-50% of the total blood cells. Hematocrit=HCT=Packed Cell Volume=Volume of Packed Red Cells. Males have a higher hematocrit than females.
Hematopoietic Production Rates are regulated by...and repond to...
...regulated by cytokines and respond to stresses, such as infection (which results in LEFT SHIFT).
Hematopoietic Stem Cells express which CD?
CD34: a cell adhesion molecule that helps HSCs stick in Bone Marrow
Hereditary Spherocytosis Key Clinical/Exam Findings
Splenomegaly and Jaundice
Hereditary Spherocytosis Key Laboratory Findings
Mild-Moderate Anemia, HIGH Reticulocyte Percentage, Loss of Central Pallor, INCREASED Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC, this is increased due to mild cellular dehydration, HIGH Bilirubin.
Hereditary Spherocytosis Treatment
Splenectomy, Bone Marrow Transplant, or Homologous Cell Transplant. NOTE: RBCs in HS look normal when they exit the BM, but are changed to Spherocytes within the Spleen!
Hereditary Spherocytosis is an inherited defect in which RBC cytoskeleton-membrane tethering proteins?
Ankyrin, Spectrin, Band 3, and Band 4.2
Homeostasis (General Definition and Types)
-The maintenance of stability among elements of a system, despite changing conditions.
-Types: Physiological Homeostasis and Tissue Homeostasis
How much of your body weight is Hematopoietic Marrow?
If Bone Marrow is damaged, where can Hematopoiesis occur?
In the Spleen and Liver via the process of Extramedullary Hematopoiesis
If a young person has a very fatty Core Bone Marrow Sample, they have...
A problem producing blood due to having much less hematopoietic tissue!
If an elderly person has a very cellular Core Bone Marrow Sample, they have...
A Proliferative Disease!
Key Cytokines of Hematopoiesis + Functions
-GM-CSF: Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor. Made by Macrophages, T-Cells, and Endothelial Cells. Triggers Common Myeloid Progenitor to become Monocyte/Granulocyte.
-TPO: Thrombopoietin. Made in Liver. Acts on several levels to make Megakaryocytes/Platelets.
-EPO: Erythropoietin. Made in Kidney Cortex. Acts upon the Colony Forming Unit of Erythropoiesis
Lives of Blood Cells in a Nutshell
Produced in Iliac Crest Bone Marrow-->Circulate-->RBCs killed in Spleen, Granulocytes via Apoptosis
Loss of membrane components in Hereditary Spherocytosis leads to..
Membrane blebs (spherocytes) blebbing off normal RBCs and being Pitted/Culled in Spleen via Splenic Macrophages.
Marrow's "niche" for stem cells contains...
Adventitial Cells and Cytokines
Organization of Red Marrow Cords?
Cells are grouped by lineage. Red Cells are CLOSER to Sinuses. Granulocytes are FURTHER from Sinuses. Cords run BETWEEN Sinuses. Adventitial Reticular Cells SUPPORT Cords.
Peripheral Blood Issues are tested via...
A Complete Blood Count (CBC)!
-temperature, blood chemistry, etc. These are usually kept relatively constant.
increase in RBCs/ml (elevated hematocrit). Can produce thick blood.
Production and Destruction in Blood Cell Homeostasis
-Central (Marrow) does continuous PRODUCTION, Peripheral is site of FUNCTION/DESTRUCTION
RBC diseases that involve mutations in cytoskeletal proteins which result in loss of RBC flexibility and increased fragility lead to what processes?
-These RBCs are more rapidly reduced/destoryed in the Spleen (pitted and culled), which leads to Anemia. -These RBCs may block vessels, leading to infarcts and tissue damage.
Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia are the result of mutations in genes coding for...
Splenic Macrophage function in Hereditary Spherocytosis results in...
ANEMIA! Spherocytes are less able to maneuver through Splenic Sinusoids and are thus consumed by Splenic Macrophages.
The Embryology of Hematopoiesis: Location Changes?
Outside the Embryo (Week 2) --> Liver (HSCs Present, Week 6) --> Bone Marrow Appears (Weeks 8-12) and becomes major site of Hematopoiesis by month 5 --> Medullary Hematopoiesis becomes Axial (Pelvis, Vertebrae) postpartum.
The Erythroblast Series of Hematopoiesis
CFU-E: Colony Forming Unit Erythrocyte
The Granulocyte Series of Hematopoiesis
CFU-GM: Colony Forming Unit Granulocyte Macrophage
The biconcave disc shape of an RBC creates...
central pallor, which provides good surface to volume ratio and allows cells to bend and travel through capillaries (which are smaller than 7 microns)
The principal production of new blood occurs in...
the Iliac Crest
Three Critical RBC Membrane Proteins
Band 3, Ankyrin, and Spectrin
-the balance between cell creation and cell loss in order to maintain the balance of organs/systems.
Two FUs of Erythrocyte Development
BFU-E (Burst Forming Unit) divides slowly to eventually produce CFU-E (Colony Forming Units), which divide quickly and begin differentiation.
What does the stress response do to Erythropoiesis?
Increases the % of Reticulocytes in the blood (a LEFT SHIFT!)
What is Red Marrow and where is it majorly found? What is the name of the Hematopoietic Tissue?
Red Marrow is active marrow that is full of venous sinuses/sinusoids. Flat Bones (i.e. the Pelvis) are major Red Marrow Sites. The Hematopoietic Tissues between sinuses are called Cords. Adventitial Reticular Cells provide a meshwork that supports Cords.
What is Yellow Marrow?
Yellow Marrow is Inactive and Fatty . Adventitial Reticular Cells become fat cells in Yellow Marrow.
What is required for CFU-E Mitosis and Survival?
EPO! Later stages also have EPO receptors, but they eventually get down-regulated.
What promotes the proliferation of Progenitor and Transit Amplifying Cells in Adult Intestines?
What three lineages do Hematopathologists pay most attention to?
If the marrow looks normal for the production of a) RBCs, b) Granulocytes, and c) Platelets "Trilineage Hematopoiesis looks normal, etc. etc."
What two pathways are active in RBCs?
- Glycolysis (which gives the energy to maintain Hemoglobin in a reduced state) - Pentose Phosphate Pathway (which generate NADPH)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anemias by Pathoma
Gene Expression, Translation, and Diagnostic Metho…
Data Acquisition EBM
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