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Cell Injury Adaptation
Terms in this set (51)
Disease is a manifestation of _____ injury
Cell injury gives rise to changes at the cell level and as more cells are invoked you get a lesion. lesions are the result of changes in the ______ of cells/tissues/organs resulting from injury
Clinical signs and symptoms of disease are the result of changes in _______ of cells/tissues/organs resulting from injury
Stress--> adaptation--> cell injury--> reversible or irreversible. cell injury may or may not occur. Is adaptation irreversible?
yes, the cell will go back to normal morphology and function.
3 cellular responses to stress/injurious stimuli
1) cell injury: reversible vs irreversible (morphology or mechanism)
2) cell death: apoptosis and necrosis
3) calcification: dystrophic vs metastatic
4 different types of adaptive response:
1) adaption of growth and differentiation
2) intracellular accumulation
3) hyaline change
4) cellular aging
Cellular response to stress: adaptations of growth and differentiation
Name all 4? are these reversible?
reverible, adaptive response of the cell to reduce the mass of its cytoplasm by decreasing the number or volume density of organelles.
3 ways atrophy occurs:
decrease in protein synthesis
increase in protein degradation
autophagy: cell/body starts to consume itself
Atrophy involves dec in cell size and tissue/organ mass; often leads to a reduction in cell number. may be physiologic or pathologic
ex of physiologic atrophy (associated with development and aging)
-involution of thymus with age
-involution of uterus after parturition
-atrophy of secondary sex characteristics (breast glands + testicles) due to lack of hormones
-brain and heart due to aging
Pathologic atrophy most common example:
reduced functional demand. when you have leg in cast; normal undergoes atrophy (smaller muscle cells)
5 examples that cause pathologic atrophy:
1) reduce functional demand
2) loss of innervation
3) inadequate supply of O2
4) inadequate nutrition
5) loss of endocrine stimulation (breast, testicle, endometrium)
Dead cells in atrophy are replaced by ____ ____. Dead cells are not reversible but atrophy is reversible cuz the remaining cells can undergo hypertrophy.
Can all cells undergo atrophy?
opposite of atrophy; increase in cell size and hence the size of the organ.
increase in number or volume density of organelles associated with increased protein synthesis. NOT SIMPLE SWELLING
-physiological or pathological due to inc functional demand or hormonal stimulation
Most common example of hypertrophy?
if you work out, you get hypertrophy of your muscle fibers/cells
Are both atrophy and hypertrophy reversible?
another example of physiologic hypertrophy?
when you get pregnant, your uterus has to expand so it undergoes hypertrophy (increase cell size). hormonally driven. they then undergo atrophy when you give birth.
Pathologic hypertrophy in the cardiac muscle cells
Hypertensive patients; muscles work harder to pump so they enlarge--> deprivation of circulation.
-reversible with treatment
all cells can undergo atrophy and hypertrophy, but can all cell undergo hyperplasia?
no, only the one that proliferate.
-kidney cells, nerves, myocardiocytes don't proliferate
an increase in cell number is called
hyperplasia can be physiologic (compensatory: replenish RBC after donation or hormonal (pregnant)) or pathologic. 2 things that in excessive cause hyperplasia
excessive hormone stimulation
excessive growth factor stimulation
As men get older and their hormones change they get hyperplasia of what organ?
-prostate enlarges, urethra is smaller because its constricted so they pee more because they don't completely empty the bladder
an example of hyperplasia in mouth?
which drugs can cause gingival hyperplasia?
calcium channel blockers
gingival hyperplasia is normal tissue except ___ ____ are longer than usual. but looks normal.
is hyperplasia reversible if you remove the stimuli?
adaptive transformation of one type of fully differentiated type of tissue into another often in response to chronic irritation (reversible)
normal bronchial epithelium is what type of cells
pseudostratified (columnar epithelium)
pseudostrafied (columnar) epithelium in bronchus is replaced by which cell in a smoker
why are smokers more susceptible to pulmonary infection?
the epithelium has lots its function. No cilia to protect us from infection.
metaplasia also occurs in GERD (gastro esophageal reflex disorder) aka barrets esophagus. esophagus contains which cells?
stomach contains which cells?
constant acid reflux causes the esophagus to look more like stomach; adaptive response. squamous esophageal cells turn into
-the esophageal junction moves up
can metaplasia occur in vitamin A deficiency?
yes; squamous metaplasia in respiratory epithelium
glandular epithelium can change to squamous non-secretory epithelium due to stones.
can metaplasia occur in non epithelial? like bone seen in muscle
intracellular accumulations may be synthesized by the affected cell like water, lipid, protein or produced elsewhere (mineral of products of infectious agents)
name 4 common intracellular accumulations
lipids, protein, pigment, glycogen
intracellular accumulations of fat associated with abnormal metabolism like drinkers is called ___ ___ in liver
fatty change in liver
if protein does not fold properly can it be transferred and relocated?
no, its going to accumulate in the cell.
how can there be an intracellular accumulation due to enzyme deficiency?
if tissues lack enzymes, large complexes are not broken down (metabolism) and accumulate.
-accumulation of glycolipid in gaucher, gangliosides (tay-sachs) and niemann-pick (spingomyelin)
accumulation due to ingestion of indigestible material appears in histology slides as
which indigestible material is taken up primarily in the lung and in histology has black stained granules.
____ ______: alterations within cells or extracellular space. homogenous, glassy pink areas in histology slides.
hyaline change often associated with accumulation of _________
is cell injury an adaptive change?
progressive decline in life span and functional capacity of cells
mechanisms that contribute to cellular aging:
-accumulation of DNA damage
-dec in cellular respiration (telomere gets shorter)
-defective protein homeostasis
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Cell Injury Reversible
Cell Injury Irreversible
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