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chapter 9, 10, 11
Terms in this set (48)
the systematic inequalities between and among different groups within nations that result from the differences in wealth, power, and prestige.
The purchase of inputs from overseas suppliers or the production of inputs abroad to lower production costs and improve product quality or design.
gross national income
measures the total output of goods and services produced by residents of a country each year plus the income from nonresident sources divided by the size of the population
the united states is one of the most affluent nations in the world
meaning the ability of a country to excercise control over other countries or groups of countries
have the most power in the world economic system. these countries control and profit the most from the world system,.
surronding the core countries both structurally and geographically, semi-industrialized and to some degree represent a kind of middle class.
first world countries
consist of yhe industrialized capitalist countries of the world, historically including the united nations.
secound world countries
socialist countries, these countries had a communist based goverment and a state managed economy, as some still do.
third world countries
are the countries are poor
international division of labor
the exploitation of cheap llabor has created a poor and dependent workforce that is mostly people of color
a country becomes more "modernized" by increased technological development and this technological development is also dependent on other countries
suggests that nations remain underdeveloped when traditional customs and culture discourage individual achievement and kin relations dominate, derives from the work of max weber
focuses on explaining the persistence of poverty in the world. and argues b/c of the exploitation by powerful countries to their counties
western nations became wealthy by taking raw materials from colonized societies and reaping profits from products finished in the homeland
a form of control of the poor contries by the rich countries but without direct political or military involvement
are companies that draw a large share of their profits from overseas investments and that conduct buisness across national borders
world systems theory
premise that no nation in the world can be considered in isolation associated closely with the work of immanuel wallerstein
one of the biggest differences among poor and wealthy contries is population. poorest countries have the higest birthrates and the highest death rates,
gender inequality index
a measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labor force participation; 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality)
the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political goal
the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
people live on less than a dollar a day
people live then less then the equivalent of 1.25 a day
multidimensional poverty index
a measure of serious deprivations in the dimensions of health, education and living standards that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their deprivation
theories of global stratification?
modernization theory which interprets the economic developement of a country in terms of the internal attitudes and values.dependency theory which draws on the fact that many of the poorest nations are former colonies of european colonial poers that keep colonies poor and do not allow their industries to develop.. && world systems theory that argues that no nation can be isolated
a group of people who share the same ancestors, culture, language, or religion
is a grou[ treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics and is often singled out for differential and unfair treatment
is a process whereby some social catefory such a social class or nationality, takes on what society perceieves to be racial characteristics
out group homogeneity effect
where all members of any out group are percieved to be similar or even identical to each other and differences among them are perceieved to be minor or nonexistent
is any distinct group in society that shares a common group charateristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination
the group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society
is an oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum
which states that we categorize people on the basis of what appears intially prominent and obvious.
a person who crosses over or occupies a culturally accepted position in the binary male-female gender construction
existing social arrangements
is the fear of homosexuals
society or a group in which women have power over men
in which men have power over women
labor force patricipation rate
is the % age of thoese in a given catrgory who are employed either part time or full time.
human capitptal theory
explains gender differences in wages
labor market theory
women and men earn diff amounts bc they tend to work in diff segments of the labor market
segregation in the labor market can also be based on factors such as race class age or any combo.
women make up 82% of elementary and middle school teachers. 97% of secretarys
refers to practices that single out some groups for diff and unequal treatment
parents have the most influence on childrens gender identities
most women hold feminist views
equal rights amendment
no unequal treatment between the genders
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