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AP European History: Key Terms Part 2
Terms in this set (27)
*A wave of late-nineteenth industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads.
*This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States.
*Both the US and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.
Second Industrial Revolution
*The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive.
*Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
*"The politics of reality"
*Used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part.
*Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of realpolitik.
*A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions.
*Endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage.
*A government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitary manner.
*The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of an autocracy.
*The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905.
*The policy of extending one country's rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination
*A region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, a foreign nation.
Sphere of Influence
*President Woodrow Wilson's idealistic peace aims.
*Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade.
*A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
*A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920's.
*Utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
New Economic Policy
*Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths.
*Humans must accept responsibility for their actions.
*This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish.
*Reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the twentieth century.
*A scientific theory associated with Albert Einstein.
*Theory that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.
*A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
*A political system that combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy.
*These governments glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties.
*Prosperous landowning peasants in czarist Russia.
*Joseph Stalin accused the kulaks of being class enemies of the poorer peasants.
*Stalin "liquidated the kulaks as a class" by executing them and expropriating their land to form collective farms.
*An economic theory based on the ideas of twentieth century British economist John Maynard Keynes.
*Governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth.
*A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war.
*Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
*The name of a US foreign policy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy.
*Inspired by George F. Kennan, this was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance.
*The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after World War II.
*The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union.
*Carried out by Nikita Khrushchev by:
-denouncing Joseph Stalin's cult of personality
-producing more consumer goods
-allowing greater cultural freedom
-pursuing peaceful coexistence with the west
*assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
*Justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
*The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.
*Introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon.
*Examples: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and President Nixon's trips to China and Russia
*A polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz
*Contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish government.
*Policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980's.
-new openness of speech
-greater criticism of Communist Party policies
*An economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980's.
-less government regulation
-greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture
*A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of:
*Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.
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