12 terms

AP European History: Art Review (Type Definitions)

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*Byzantine style dominates
*One-dimensional figures associated with priestly functions of the church
Medieval
*Reaction to the "cold and unfeeling" reason of the Enlightenment and against the destruction of nature resulting from the Industrial Revolution.
*Stress is on light, color, and self-expression, in opposition to the emphasis on line and firm modeling typical of neoclassical art
*Emotion feeling, exoticism, mystery, and nature.
*Nineteenth century.
Romanticism
*No single point of view.
*All possible views of the subject are compressed into one synthesized view of top, sides, front, and back.
*Picture becomes a multifaceted view of objects with angular, interlocking planes.
*A new way of seeing.
*A view of the world as a mosaic of multiple relationships.
*Reality as interaction.
*Twentieth century.
Cubism
*Return to classical antiquity for inspiration.
*Scenes are historical and mythological.
*Figures appear to be sculpted.
*Appeal is to the intellect, not the heart.
*Emotions are restrained, balance is achieved.
*Reactions to Baroque and Rococo
*Linked to French and American Revolutions
*Eighteenth Century
Neo-Classicism
*Use of perspective
*Chiaroscuro (use of light and darkness to create a sense of volume).
*Sfumato (shading)
*Figures from the Bible, classical history, and mythology
*Commissioned portraits
*Individualism
*Virtu, Balance, and order
Renaissance
*More colorful, richer in texture and decoration
*Scenes embody mystery and drama, violence and spectacle
*Catholic Church commissions artists to stir religious emotions and win back defectors
*Counter-Reformation
Baroque
*Art tries to penetrate the facade of bourgeois superficiality and probe the psyche, that which lurks beneath an individual's calm and artificial posture.
*Indebted to Freud
*Subliminal anxiety, dissonance in color and perspective, pictorial violence-manifest and latent.
*Nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Expressionism
*Non-representational art
*Flattened-out planes and values
*The real appearance of forms in nature is subordinated to an aesthetic concept of form composed of shapes, lines, and colors.
*Personal and subjective interpretation.
*Twentieth century
Abstract Expressionism
*Everyday scenes
*Middle-class Dutch patrons commissioned secular works portraits, still-lifes, landscapes
*Quite opulence, comfortable domesticity, realism.
*Seventeenth century
Northern Realism
*Art of the French Aristocracy
*Portrayed nobility in sylvan settings or ornate interiors
*Venuses and Cupids abound
*Frivolous
*Ornamentation, elegance, sweetness
*Backlash to darkness of Baroque
*Eighteenth Century
Rococo
*Use of light
*Forms are bathed in light.
*Colors are juxtaposed for the eye to fuse from a distance.
*Short, choppy brush strokes to catch the vibrating quality of light.
*Attempt to portray the fleeting and transitory world of sense impressions based on scientific studies of light.
*Nineteen century
Impressionism
*Explores the dream world
*A world without logic, reason, or meaning
*Fascination with mystery, the strange encounters between objects, and incongruity
*Subjects are often indecipherable in their strangeness.
*Dream sequence, illogic, fantasy.
*Nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Surrealism