50 terms

Social Psychology RM

Prep for AP Psych exam
Social Psychology
study of people in interaction with each other
Group dynamics
general term for some of the phenomena we observe when people interact
social facilitation
increase in performance on a task when performed in front of others
social inhibition
when presence of others worsens performance
social loafing
putting less effort in a group task
group polarization
exaggerating our initial attitudes (judgments) after being in groups
cooperative orientation
group members try to maximize outcomes for all involved individuals
Altruistic orientation
seeking to maximize outcome for others
individualist orientation
try to maximize their own benefit
competitive orientation
people willing to max their own benefit at the expense of others
developed by Irving Janis, when members are so driven to reach unanimous decisions, they no longer think through individual values and realistic outcomes
one responsible for criticizing or ostracizing members of the group who do not agree with the rest
how people assign responsibility for certain outcomes
dispositional attribution
assumes cause of a behavior or outcome is internal/ individual
situational attribution
assigns cause to the environment or external conditions
self-serving bias
credits self when outcomes are positive, but says it is external when results are negative
fundamental attribution error
when judging behavior of others, attributing more of it to the person than the environment or situation
self-fulfilling prophecy
behaving in an unnatural way that makes a prediction come true
Rosenthal Effect
when educators teach different children different after judging the kids' intellects, resulting in the students' performances to reflect teacher's judgment
Interpersonal attraction
tendency to positively evaluate a person and gravitate to that person.
factors: characteristics, environmental and social influences
Positively evaluation
we tend to prefer the company of people who think highly of us
Shared opinions
tend to mix with people who praise and agree with our opinions
Mere Exposure Effect
how proximity affects attraction (the closer people are, the ore likely they are to be friends)
modification of behavior to make it agree with that of a group
Soloman Asch
gender, size of group, self esteem, unanimity of group's opinion, but not age, affected individual's opinion when asked in a group
agree to the requests of others, even f it hurts you
Foot in the door phenomenon
involves making small requests, then work up to big requests
studied by Stanley Milgram, electric shock test, showed the more authority a person has, the more likely their orders will be followed
Social learning theory
AKA modeling, people tend to be obedient to figures of authority
combinations of affective (emotional) and cognitive (perceptual) reactions to different stimuli
Affective is the emotional response, cognitive component is what we think about the item or issue
process by which person or group nfluences the attitudes of tohers
Central route to persuasion
the use of facts to persuade
persuading factors
interpersonal attractiveness (attractive, likable, trustworthy, knowledgeable)
nature of the message (repetition, fear)
low self-esteem
Cognitive dissonance
when attitudes and behaviors contradict each other, generally people adjust their attitude and continue their behavior
Studied by Leon Festinger
Altruism; helping behavior
selfless sacrifice, when people form empathic response to plight of others
Bystander effect
when a large group does not help someone in need because of diffusion of responsibility
equity theory
workers evaluate their efforts versus their rewards
Human facotrs research
deals with interaction of person and machine
Hawthorne effect
indicates workers being monitored for any reason work more efficiently and productively
Antisocial behavior
harmful behavior to society or others (can be divided to prejudice and aggression)
negative attitude toward members of a particular group without evidentiary backing
Out group homogeneity
every member of a group other than our own is similar
illusory correlation
when we tend to see relationships where they don't actually exist
contact hypothesis
groups would lose stereotypes if groups were exposed to each other
Robbers' Cave experiment
opposing teams hated each other, but when working together, found that they were similar to each other
Hostile aggression
emotional and impulsive, typically induced by pain or stress
instrumental aggression
aggression committed to gain something of value
Conclusion from Albert Bandura's work
showed if children see adults rewarded for aggression, they will copy that behavior
ability to view the victims of violence as somehow less than human, demonstrated by Phil Zimbardo (jail project)
Reducing aggression
Do not use punishment, but show non aggressive models of conflict resolutions, or diffusion of aggression with humor or empathy