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Main idea

the topic and controlling point of a paragraph;what the paragraph is about


descriptions,reasons,examples,etc.that support the main idea

implied main idea

a main idea that is not specifically stated in the sentences of a paragraph


a shorter version of a text that gives only the main points


another word for a summary that has certain specific characteristics


a type of explanation that interprets or clarifies a text


an expression such as"its raining cats and dogs," that cannot be understood form the definitions of the individual words

electronic text



very brief summary of a much longer text


to reword text in your own words


using someone else's ideas or copying someone else's exact words and claiming them as your own in a report


to put together information from more than one source

complete sentence

group of words that expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb

declarative sentence

makes a statement and ends in a period

interrogative sentence

asks a question and ends with a question mark

exclamatory sentence

makes a strong statement and ends with an exclamation point

imperative sentence

makes a request or gives a command


part of a sentence or mistake in writing

run on sentence

two or more sentences put together incorrectly without a period.a conjunction,or a semicolon


joins words or group of words

coordinate conjunctions

join equal words,phrases,or sentences


group of words with a subject and a verb

simple sentence

one main clause

compound sentence

two or more main clauses or complete thoughts

adjective clause

modifies,or describes a noun or a pronoun in the main clause

adverb clause

another type of subordinate clause in a complex sentence

subordinate conjunction

usually modifies a verb but also can modify an adjective or an adverb

author's purpose

a writer's reason for writing

text sructures

different ways for writers to present or organize information


the use of words that appeal to the senses to give the reader a mental picture


to explain or describe similarities


to explain or describe differences


gives events in the order that they occurred in time


gives the steps of a process in the order they should be performed

order of importance

organizes details.reasons, the order of their importance

spatial order

organizes the description of items according to their position or closeness to each other

Literary elements

characteristics of texts often seen in fictional and nonfictional stories and poetry,but thay can also be seen in other types of nonfiction


an author's choice of words

figurative language

language that is not meant to be understoood literally and includes the use of simile,metaphor,analogy,personifications,hyperbole,oxymoron,idiom,symbolism,irony,and pharadox


the time and place of a story;includes its surroundings and environment


the feeling created in the reader


the writer's attitude towards the subject


the feeling created by mood,tone, and settong

Cause and effect

a realtionship that explains how one thing makes something else happpen

Problem and Solution

a realtionship that shows how a conflict or issue(the problem) is answered(the solution)

Keywords for Causes

because,due to,for,since,first,(the)cause is

Keywords for effects

as a result,resulted in,therefore,consequently,(the)result is,thus


Turning point

Falling action

the events that accur after the climax


the story


earlier accidents


the reader's feeling of uncertainty and wanting to know more


the point at which the conflict is resolved

dramatic irony

the reader knows something one character doesnt know


hints about the future

rising action

introduction to the major conflict


background information


the probelm the main character faces

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