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20 terms

Genetics: The Science of Heredity

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heredity
the passing traits from parents to offspring
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
fertilization
the process in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new organism
purebred
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
gene
the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
alleles
the different forms of a gene
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
probability
a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
codominance
a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
meiosis
the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells by which the number of chromosomes is also reduced by half
messenger RNA
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
transfer RNA
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain