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the passing traits from parents to offspring


a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes


the scientific study of heredity


the process in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new organism


the offspring of many generations that have the same traits


the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait


the different forms of a gene

dominant allele

an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

recessive allele

an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present


an organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait


a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur

Punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that that can result from a genetic cross


an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits


an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations


having two identical alleles for a trait


having two different alleles for a trait


a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive


the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells by which the number of chromosomes is also reduced by half

messenger RNA

RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm

transfer RNA

RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain

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