49 terms

PSC 124, Test #2 Ch 11&12

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tragedy of the commons
a collective goods dilemma that is created when common environmental assets are depleted or degraded through the failure of states to cooperate effectively, one solution is to enclose the commons, international regimes an also be a solution
enclosure
splitting the commons into individually owned pieces
sustainable development
economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroy ecosystems so quickly that the basis of their economic growth is itself undermined
1992 Earth Summit
established the Commission on Sustainable Development which monitors states' compliance with the promises they made at the Earth Summit and hears evidence from environmental NGO's such as Greenpeace
UNEP
(UN Environment Program) whose main function is to monitor environmental conditions and works with the World Meteorological Organization to measure changes in global climate
IPCC
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1989 UN-sponsored organization serves for negotiating forum climate change
fossil fuels
oil,coal, and natural gases
greenhouse gases
CO2 and other gases that when concentrated in the atmosphere, act like the glass in a greenhouse, holding energy in and leading to global warming
1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change
adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit that set a nonbinding goal to limit greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000
Kyoto Protocol
the main international treaty on global warming, which entered into effect in 2004 and mandates cuts in carbon emission in 2008-2012, almost all of the worlds major countries except the US are participants
ozone layer
the part of the atmosphere that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun, certain chemicals used in industrial economies break the ozone layer down
Montreal Protocol
an agreement on protection of the ozone in layer in which states pledged to reduce and then eliminate the use of CFCs, it is the most successful environmental treaty to date
biodiversity
the tremendous diversity of plant an animal species making up the earths ecosystems
UNCLOS
a world treaty (1982) governing use of the oceans, established rules on territorial waters and a 200 mile exclusive economic zone
EEZ
places a substantial share of the economically profitable ocean resources in the control of states
debt-for-nature swaps
a debt is canceled in exchange for the states agreement to preserve forests
acid rain
rain caused by air pollution that damages trees and often crosses borders, limiting acid rain has been the subject of several regional agreements
Chernobyl
a city in Ukraine that was the site of a 1986 meltdown at a Soviet nuclear power plant
Aral Sea
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1973 oil shock
had a profound effect on the word economy, oil producing states decided to punish the US for supporting Israel
Caspian Sea
could be defined under international law as either a lake or sea
Malthusians
officials who warn against world overpopulation
demographic transition
birthrates and death rates that follow a fairly universal pattern
pronatalist policies
governments that encourage or force childbearing and outlaw or limit access to contraception
developing countries, LDN
worlds poorest regions
Millenium Development Goals
sets targets for basic needs measures to be achieved by 2015 and measured against 1990 data
UNICEF Health Care
education, provide safe drinking water and food, AIDS medicines
malnutrition
lack of needed foods including protein and vitamins
undernourishment
lack of calories
subsistence farming
rural communities have grown their own food
cash crops
agricultural goods produced for export to world markets
urbanization
more and more people move from the countryside to the city
land reform
policies to breakup large land holdings and redistribute them to poorer peasants
migration
moving from a poorer country to a wealthier one
migrant
one who voluntarily moves
refugees
people fleeing to find refuge from war, natural disaster or political prosecution
trafficking
people who are trafficked across borders against their will to preform certain tasks such as labor, domestic servitude or prostitution
capital accumulation
the creation of standing wealth such as buildings, roads etc.
economic surplus
using capital to produce more capital
world system theory
a view of the world in terms of regional class divisions with industrialized countries as the core, poorest countries as the periphery and other areas as the semi-peripherty
core countries
industrialized, first world nations
periphery
the poorest countries, third world states
semi periphery
nations that are not industrialized but not poor
imperialism
the acquisition of colonies by conquest or otherwise
colonization
territories taken by large states
decolonization
when previous colonies declare independence from the mother state
neocolonialism
the continuation in a former colony and colonial exploitation without the formed political control
enclave economy
foreign capital is invested in third world countries to extract a particular raw material in a particular place
dependency theory
explains lac of accumulation of wealth in the third world, capital cannot sustain itself internally, a state must borrow money to produce goods