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The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation. (See Appendix.)

Brethren of the Common Life

Pious laypeople In sixteenth-century Holland who Initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living.

John Calvin

(1509-1564) - A French theologian who established a theocracy In Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination.

Charles V

(1519-1556) - Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands.

Council of Trent

The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.


A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read.


Papal pardon for remission of sins.


A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.


Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

John Knox

(1505-1572) Calvinist leader in sixteenth-century Scotland.

Martin Luther

(1483-1546) - German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world.

Sir Thomas More

(1478-1535 - Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.


The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.

Peace of Augsburg

(1555) - Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.


The holding of several benefices, or church offices.


The selling of church offices.


A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state Is subordinate to the church.


The practice of lending money for interest.

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