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Exam One Objectives: Arthology
Terms in this set (29)
How are joints classified functionally?
The degree of movement permitted by articulation
What features are used to determine structural classification of joints?
The presence or absence of a joint cavity and the kind of connective tissue that binds the bones together
What are the general classes of joints when structure is the determining factor?
How is a fibrous joint classified functionally?
Immovable - do allow for minimal/limited movement
Does a fibrous joint have a joint cavity?
What is used to hold the articulating bones together in a fibrous joint?
Fibrous connective tissue
List the three main types of fibrous joints and give an example.
Sutural - flat bones of the skull
Syndesmosis - interosseous membrane and ligamentum flavum
Gomophosis - root of tooth with bone
What are the two subtypes seen in the syndesmosis classification?
Give an example of each subtype.
White - interosseous membrane
Yellow - ligamentum flavum
How is a cartilaginous joint classified functionally?
Does a cartilaginous joint have a joint cavity?
What is used to hold the articulating bones together in a cartilaginous joint?
Hyaline or fibrocartilage
What are the two main types of cartilaginous joints and how do they differ?
Primary/Synchondrosis - once hyaline cartilage and is replaced by bone
Secondary/Symphysis - covered in thin layer of hyaline, sandwiched layer of fibrocartilage
Give an example of cartilaginous joints.
Primary: Epiphyseal plate between shaft and end of long bones
Secondary: intervertebral discs
How is a synovial joint classified functionally?
Does a synovial joint have a joint cavity?
What is used to hold the articulating bones together in a synovial joint?
Fibrous capsule and ligaments
What is a bursa and where might they be found?
Flattened, pouch-like sac lined by synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid
Over certain diarthrotic joints
What is a specific function of a bursa?
Allow free movement of skin over bony protuberances
What is bursitis and why is it clinically important?
Inflammation of the bursae; imposes limits on movement and activity
What might restrict movements at an articulation?
Apposition of soft body parts, tension of ligaments, muscle tension
Example of Gliding movement
between carpals and tarsals
Example of Angular movement
elbow and knee
Example of Rotation movement
shaking head side to side
Example of Circumduction movement
outstretched arm moving in a circle
How does structure reflect function with regard to movement at articulations?
The shape of the articulating surface is the primary structural factor determining degree of movement
Give an example of structure reflecting function with regard to movement at articulations
Flat surfaces - gliding joints
List the 6 types of synovial joints with an example.
Gliding - carpals
Hinge - elbow
Pivot - between atlas and axis
Ellipsoidal - radial-carpal joint
Saddle - trapezium and metacarpal of the thumb
Ball and Socket - shoulder
What axiom is exhibited throughout these subgroups of synovial joints?
The shape of the articulating surface determines variable number of degrees of freedom of movement
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