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55 terms

Mrs. Cleveland - Ch 22 and 24 Vocabulary - 4-19-12

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Sporophyte
diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
Gametophyte
haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
Bryophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
Rhizoid
in mosses, a long, thin cell that anchors the moss to the ground and absorbs water and minerals from the surrounding soil
Gemma
small cup-shaped structure in liverworts that contains many haploid cells, used for asexual reproduction
Protonema
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
Antheridium
male reproductive structure in some algae and plants
Archegonium
female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts
Vascular tissue
type of plant tissue specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout a plant
tracheid
hollow plant cell in xylem tissue with thick cell walls that resist pressure
xylem
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
root
underground organ in plants that absorbs water and minerals
leaf
photosynthetic organ that contains one or more bundles of vascular tissue
vein
in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves
stem
supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them
rhizome
creeping or underground stem in ferns
frond
large leaf of a fern
sporangium
structure in ferns and some fungi that contains spores
sorus
cluster of sporangia on the underside of fern frond
gymnosperm
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones
angiosperm
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed
cone
in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure
flower
seed-bearing structure of an angiosperm
pollen grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
pollination
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
seed
embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply
embryo
organism in its early stage of development
seed coat
structure that surrounds and protects a plant embryo and keeps it from drying out
fruit
wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed
monocot
angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon
dicot
angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons
cotyledon
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
annual
flowering plant that completes a life cycle within one growing season
biennial
flowering plant that completes its life cycle in two years
perennial
flowering plant that lives for more than two years
pollen cone
cone in gymnosperms that produces male gametophytes in the form of pollen grains
seed cone
cone that produces female gametophytes
ovule
structure in seed cones in which female gametophytes develop
pollen tube
structure grown by a pollen grain; contains two haploid sperm nuclei
sepal
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
petal
brightly colored structure just inside the sepals; attracts insects and other pollinators to a flower
stamen
male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament
filament
in algae, a long threadlike colony formed by many green algae; in plants, a long, thin structure that supports an anther
anther
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
carpel
innermost part of a flower that produces the female gametophytes
ovary
in plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced
style
narrow stalk of the carpel in a flower
stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
embryo sac
female gametophyte within the ovule of a flowering plant
endosperm
food-rich tissue that nourishes a seedling as it grows
double fertilization
fertilization in angiosperms, in which two distinct fertilization events take place between the male and female gametophytes
dormancy
period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing
germination
early growth stage of a plant embryo