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The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following

A. adrenal gland.
B. smooth muscle in the walls of the aorta.
C. cardiac muscle in the right atrium.

E. parotid salivary gland.

Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following

A. changing the diameter of the pupil.
B. adjusting heart rate and force.
C. altering salivary mucus secretion.
D. regulating gastrointestinal motility.

Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?

C. sensory receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → gland

Parasympathetic tone

A. holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate.

Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving

B. digestion.

___ is the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

. Autonomic tone.

The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)

. acetylcholine (ACh).

The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.

. excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory

Autonomic nervous system

. denervation would cause hypersensitivity.

In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood
to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ____ its beats per minute.

baroreceptors; decrease

The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __ neurons.

. two

Preganglionic fibers run from

gray matter to autonomic ganglia.

Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.

myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)

Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this

effector pathway in the visceral reflex arc involves more neurons

Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in

the vagus nerve.

Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ____ region(s) of the spinal cord.

thoracic and lumbar

The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord.

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal

These are all features of the sympathetic division

it originates in the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord.
. it has long postganglionic fibers.

. its ganglia are adjacent to the spinal column.
. it has an extensive neural divergence and a relative widespread effect.

These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division

. its effects are local.
. the terminal ganglia are very close to or within their target organs.
. it originates in the craniosacral regions of the CNS.
. it has short postganglionic fibers.

This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What does structure "3"

preganglionic sympathetic fiber

This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What structure(s) is(are)
not associated with the autonomic nervous system?


Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic
neurons. This results in

the sympathetic nervous system having a relative widespread effect.

The solar plexus is used as a name for

either the celiac and mesenteric ganglia or with celiac ganglia only.

The adrenal medulla secretes mostly

epinephrine (adrenaline).

This figure shows a division of the autonomic nervous system. The label __ represents the Vagus
Nerve (CN X).


Which nerve(s) carries the most parasympathetic fibers?

vagus nerve (CN X)

The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region(s) of the spinal cord.

brain and sacral

Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accommodation.

oculomotor nerve (CN III)

White rami carry ____ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.

myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic

These are all characteristics of the enteric nervous systems

it does not arise from the spinal cord.
it innervates smooth muscle.
. it innervates glands.
. it does not arise from the brainstem.

If a cell has α1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to


All of the following are under dual control of the ANS

. pupil diameter.
. heart rate.
. salivary gland activity.

. gastrointestinal motility.

Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to

decrease heart rate.

Which of the following is more effective in producing bronchodilation?


Muscarinic receptors bind


The binding of ___ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will ___ it.

acetylcholine; excite

Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine

muscarinic receptor

Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the
control of

gastrointestinal motility.

___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.


Sympathetic fibers do not release

nitric oxide (NO).

Sympathetic effects tend to last ___ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that ___.

longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down

This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine (NE).

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter

preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)

Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely

decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant.

A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in
the brain called _____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.


Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?

postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division

The ___ is an especially important center of autonomic control.


Autonomic function receives input from all these

spinal cord.

___ nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.


Which of the following is associated with the "flight or fight" reaction?

reduced urinary output

The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.


Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system are normally active simultaneously.


The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in
the periphery.


Most autonomic efferent pathways involve one neuron.


The parasympathetic division stimulates digestion.


Most preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic fibers in the dorsal root ganglia.


All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there.


The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion.


Fibers of the vagus nerve end very near or within their target organs.


The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell.


Most sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline.


Acetylcholine (ACh) binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.


Acetylcholine (ACh) always has an excitatory effect.


Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a
beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory.


All autonomic output originates in the central nervous system.


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