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45 terms

Chapter 16

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host
STUDY
PLAY
Innate immunity is
The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen
Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
Lysozyme
The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract
Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
Neutrophils
TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT
AMPs
Which of the following CANNOT be determined from a differential count?
The number of red blood cells
The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the activation of
C3
Which of the following does NOT increase blood vessel permeability?
Lysozymes
Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?
Neutrophils-monocytes
Margination refers to
Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels
Which of the following statements is true?
Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages
Which of the following is found normally in serum?
Complement
Which of the following is NOT an effect of complement activation?
Interference with viral replication
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Which of the following is NOT a way in which normal microbiota provide protection from infection?
They produce lysozome
Which of the following does NOT provide protection from phagocytic digestion?
Causing formation of phagolysosomes
Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?
Toll-like receptors
The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid
Goes into lymph capillaries
Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is false?
They develop from neutrophils
Which of the following is NOT used by phagocytes to adhere to a microorganism?
Lysozyme
Which of the following is NOT an effect of histamine?
Fever
Which of the following is NOT a function of inflammation?
To produce antibodies
Chill is a sign that
Body temperature is rising
Which of the following statements is true?
A. There are at least 30 compliment proteins
B. All of the complement proteins are always active in serum
C. Factors B,D, and P cause cytolysis
D. Complement activity is antigen specific
E. Complement increases after immunization
There are at least 30 complement proteins
Which of the following is NOT a result of complement fixation?
Acute local inflammation
Which of the following is NOT part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons?
They inactivate viruses
The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by
Polysaccharides and C3b
The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
Antigen-antibody reactions
Activation of C3a results in
Fever
Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to
Produce toxic oxygen products
In Figure 16.1, what happens next?
C2a and C4b activate C3
After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT
Complement
Activation of C5-C9 results in
Leakage of cell contents
A C-reactive protein (CRP) test was ordered for a patient who recently underwent surgery. The results revealed CRP levels 10 times greater than normal. This indicates
Inflammation
Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?
Eosinophil
Macrophages arise from which of the following?
Monocyte
Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A. Basophil
B. Eosinophil
C. Dendritic cell
D. Natural killer cell
E. Neutrophil
Natural killer cell
Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron; humans counter this by
Transferrins
All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
A. Diapedesis
B. Margination
C., Phagocyte migration
D. Repair
E. Vasodilation
Vasodilation
The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by
Mannose on the parasite
Which one of the following is NOT an effect of fever
Kills pathogens
Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the most severe?
Deficiency of C3
Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is false?
C3 is not involved in the classical pathway
Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from
Phagocytic digestion
Serum is obtained from blood by
Coagulating whole blood