Low Latitude rainforest
Equatorial Region: Wet Equatorial Climate. Consistent rainfall, high temperatures. Broadleaf Evergreen Trees. High productivity and High species diversity
Sub-Tropical Evergreen Forest
Southeastern US and Southern Asia. Broadleaf and/or needleleaf. Relatively few species of trees. Two Layers.
Monsoon Forest (Tropical deciduous forest)
Boarders tropical rainforest, transitional to less wet climates. Mix of evergreen and deciduous trees. Less diversity, lower biomass, 2 layers of vegetation, dense understory compared to Tropical Rainforest.
Midlatitude Deciduous Forest
Extensive on N. Hemisphere continents. Tall broadleaf trees, dense canopy.
Pacific Northwest and Boreal Forest (aka Taiga)-NA and Eurasia. Severe mid latitude climates. Evergreen Needle leaf and evergreen deciduous.
Small areas in mid-latitudes. Dry Summer, Wet Winter. Sclerophyll-thick, leathery leaves. Chaparral-Dense, fire adapted shrubs.
Steppe (Asia), Pampa (Argentina), veldt (South Africa), prairie (N. America). Perrenials. Migratory ungulates.
the study of landform (characteristics, origins, development). It focuses on the surface of earth.
Individual topographic feature on the surface of the earth that can range in size. (Mountains, peninsula, sand dune)
<1% of Earth's Volume. 0.4% Weight. 8-40 miles thick. 47% Oxygen, 28% Silicon, 25% metals and bases.
Molten Rock source. Cools slowly=big crystals. Cools fast=small crystals. Intrusive and Extrusive. (transform from melting. Magma melts and forms rock when it cools)
Deposited on surface. Layering=strata. (transform from weathering and erosion. Compacted and cemented)
Altered igneous or sedimentary rock. Form deep in the earth. (transform from Heat and Pressure.)
Extrusive Rocks (igneous rock)
Spewed out. Cooled on earth's surface. Rapid cooling. Crystals too small to see with naked eye.
Intrusive Rocks (igneous rock)
Cooled below Earth's surface. Slow rate of cooling. Large crystals, seen with naked eye.
Mechanical Formation "Clastic" (sedimentary rock)
Weathering. Clastic-Formed from Fragments of other rocks.
Chemical Formation (sedimentary rock)
Precipitation of soluble materials (saltwater). Shell Accumulation.
Organic Formation (sedimentary rock)
Tissues of plants and animals. Solids-Peat and Coal. Liquids-petroleum. Gasses-natural gas.
Deformation of the Earth's crust. Solid not molten material. Folding and Faulting.
Mass Wasting (external)
Gravity induced downhill movement of soil, rocks, and regolith (fractured rock). Soil Creep, earth flow, debris flows
Age of Crust
Ocean <60 million years. Continent >1 billion years. Age increases with distance from oceanic ridges. Oldest ocean crust is near the trenches.
Volcanic mudflow. Ash and Pyroclastic materials. Mobilized by rain or melting snow. Rapidly moving.
Lateral Blast of a Volcano
Uncorking of pressure. Rock, ash, hot gases. Magmatic material-cryptodome exposed. 670 mph!
Hot, incandescent mixtures of volcanic fragments and gases. Sweep along close to the ground. 450 mph! Lethal and destructive (pompeii).
Hawaiin Islands. Occur at mid-ocean ridges. Highly fluid. Slow eruptions are slow, broad expanse of lava flow. Forms low "shield." Little pyroclastic material.
Salt Crystal Growth. Dry climates. Groud water moves through rock via capillary action. Salts deposited. Crystals grow.
Produces Regolith (fractured rock), frost/ice action (Talus cones and Felsenmeer-boulder fields), Salt Crystal Growth, Unloading, wind, wedging by roots
In pressure release, overlying materials (not necessarily rocks) are removed which causes underlying rocks to expand and fracture parallel to the surface
Hydrolysis and Oxidation. Acid Action. Changes strong rocks into weak ones, rich in clay minerals and oxides, warm, humid climates.
Earthflow (Mass Wasting)
Humid climates, water saturated soil, faster movement: hours. Too much water on the golf course!
Mudflow/Debris Flow (Mass Wasting)
Liquid mud flow caused by rapid precipitation or snow melt. Follows stream courses and moves rapidly. Ex: Alluvial fans
Unexpected or uncontrollable natural event of unusual magnitude that threatens the activities of people or people themselves
natural hazard that ACTUALLY resulted in widespread destruction of property or caused by injury and/or death
Causes of Tsunamis
Sudden rise or fall of earth's crust under or near ocean. Displaces water column. Creates rise or fall in level of ocean above. Size and energy dissipates with time and distance from source. Volcanic activity and mudslides can also cause tsunamis.
Physical factors that affect tsunami severity
speed affected by water depth (500 mph in 20,000 ft water). Shallow water, speed slows but energy remains same. Energy dissipates slowly from source. When it reaches shore its modified by reefs, beaches, and land.
Human factors that affect tsunami severity
TWS. Tsunami Warning System. 26 member countries in the pacific. Seismic and tidal monitoring.
Large, natural accumulations of ice that FLOW/SLIDE downhill or from center of accumulation. They leave distinct geomorphic features.
loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting
loose bodies of sediment that have been deposited or built up at the bottom of a low-grade slope or against a barrier on that slope, transported by gravity.
Pleistocene (last 1.5 million years). Alternating glacial and interglacial times (100,000 year cycle).
any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum.