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Chapter 1, The Human Body: An Orientation, to EXAM 1 of Anatomy and Physiology of BIO 201 at PVCC.

What are the levels of organization simple to complex?

Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism.

What is the Chemical Level of Organizational Levels?

The molecular level, atoms and molecules.

What is the Cellular Level of Organizational Levels?

The cell is the most basic functional unit of the body, cells and their organelles.

What is the Tissue Level of Organizational Levels?

Group of cells carrying out a common function.

What is the Organ Level of Organizational Levels?

Group of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function.

What is the System Level of Organizational Levels?

Group of organs that work closely together.

What is the Organism Level of Organizational Levels?

All organ systems working together to promote life.

What are the Necessary Life Functions?

Organization, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Metabolism, Digestion, Excretion, Reproduction, and Survival Instinct.

What is Organization in Necessary Life Functions?

Each cell/organ has a specific activity or function.

What is Responsiveness in Necessary Life functions?

Monitor and react to internal/external stimuli. I.E: Withdrawal Reflex.

What is Movement in Necessary Life Functions?

Change body position, generate heat, move blood. Contractility.

What is Growth in Necessary Life Functions?

Organism development, increase cell number. Increase size.

What is Differentiation in Necessary Life Functions?

Develop specialized cell/tissue from unspecialized cells.

What is Metabolism in Necessary Life Functions?

Chemical processes that manufacture substances to support life, catabolism.

What is Digestion in Necessary Life Functions?

Breakdown complex food into simpler forms for absorption into body.

What is Excretion in Necessary Life Functions?

Removal of wastes resulting from metabolism and digestion. I.E: Carbon Dioxide, Feces.

What is Reproduction in Necessary Life Functions?

Cellular replication and species survival.

What is Survival Instinct in Necessary Life Functions?

Avoid death.

What are the Physical (Survival) needs for life?

Water, Oxygen, Food, Pressure, Heat.

What is H20 in regards to the physical survival needs for life?

Makes up 80% of the body.

What is Oxygen in regards to the physical survival needs?

ATP production and energy release.

What is Food/Nutrients in regards to the physical survival needs of for life?

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nutrients, Minerals, Vitamins.

What is Pressure in regards to the physical needs for life?

Internal and external, adequate breathing and gas exchange.

What is Heat in regards to the physical needs for life?

Regulating a normal body temperature, 98.6 degrees F.

What is Homeostasis?

The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes. Equilibrium.

What is the Anatomical Position?

Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward.

What are the directional terms for the body?

Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior, Medial, Lateral, Proximal, Distal, Superficial, Deep, Cranial, Caudal, Ventral, Dorsal.

What does Superior mean?

Toward the head.

What does Inferior mean?

Towards the feet.

What does Anterior mean?

Towards the front.

What does Posterior mean?

Towards the back.

What does Medial mean?

Towards the midline of the body.

What does Lateral mean?

Away from the midline of the body.

What does Proximal mean?

Toward the core of the body.

What does Distal mean?

Away from the core of the body.

What does Superficial mean?

Towards the surface of the body. (EXTERNAL)

What does Deep mean?

Further within the body. (INTERNAL)

What does Cranial mean?

Towards the cranium.

What does Caudal mean?

Towards the tail.

What does Ventral mean?

Towards the belly.

What does Dorsal mean?

Towards the top.

What are the Body Planes for the body?

Sagittal, Mid-Sagittal, Para-Sagittal, Frontal, Transverse, and Oblique.

What is the Sagittal body plane?

The body divided into right and left parts.

What is the Mid-Sagittal body plane?

The body divided to the midline.

What is the Para-Sagittal body plane?

Not divided in the midline.

What is the Frontal body plane?

The body divided into anterior and posterior positions.

What is the Transverse body plane?

The body divided into superior and inferior positions.

What is a Oblique body plane?

a plane that passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either the midsagittal, sagittal, parasagittal, or frontal plane

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