PLTW Lesson 2.1

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Absolute Path
Representation of the location of a resource on the hard disk with respect to the root.
Addon
A piece of software designed to enhance the capabilities of another piece of software.
Authenticate
Checking to make sure that a computer or user is who/what it says it is.
Authoritative DNS
Publishes DNS data for a given domain and its subdomains.
AWSS
An Amazon Web Services system is a part of a physical machine that is used as a server; many may exist on the same computer.
Bandwidth
Measurement of the amount of data that can be transmitted through a network.
Bookmark
A piece of data used by a browser to allow the user to return quickly to a previously visited site.
Browser
A piece of software that renders web pages and allows users to view resources on a network.
Browser Tab
A separate viewing pane within a browser window, many of which may be open at once, allowing a user to switch quickly between web pages.
Brute Force
A method for determining a solution to a problem by sequentially testing all possible solutions.
Certificate Authority
Issues a digital certificate verifying that a given public key is owned by the entity named on the certificate.
Ciphertext
A string of text that has been converted to a secure form using encryption.
Client Application
A program that makes use of another piece of software or set of data.
Client Machine
A machine running a client application.
Computer and Information Technology
A group of computing careers focusing on the use of computers to store and manipulate data.
Computer System Design
A cluster of computing careers focusing on the creation and maintenance of networks and computer hardware.
Cookie
A small piece of data stored on the client machine that can only be accessed by the server that issued it.
Credentials
A set of information that identifies a particular user or machine.
Cryptography
The study and use of techniques for securing communication.
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets contain hierarchical information about how the content of a web page will be rendered in a browser.
Decryption
The process of converting a cyphertext into plaintext.
Domain
A region of the Internet that is grouped together for administrative purposes such as allocating ownership of resources.
Domain Name System
A hierarchical system for naming resources on the Internet.
Dotted Decimal Notation
A representation of numerical data in which groups of base-10 numbers are separated by dots.
Encryption
Process of converting plaintext to cyphertext.
Ethernet
A set of protocols and technologies used for computer networking.
External Style Sheet
A file containing only CSS code that may be referenced by many HTML files.
Filter
Allows some packets through while blocking others based on predetermined criteria.
Flag
An option associated with the execution of a particular UNIX command (i.e., -l or -a).
FTP
File Transfer Protocol uses a TCP-based network to pass files from host to host.
History
Information stored by a browser about the web resources that it has requested.
HTML
HyperText Markup Language is the most common language used for creating web pages.
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol allows for the passing of structured text from one node connected to the Internet to another.
ICANN
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is responsible for governing the development of DNS policy.
IETF
The Internet Engineering Task Force develops and promotes Internet standards.
Inline Style
CSS code contained directly within an HTML tag using the "style" attribute, affecting only the content of that tag.
Internet
A global computer network that relies on TCP/IP for communication between machines.
IPv4
The dominant protocol for routing traffic on the Internet.
IPv6
A new protocol developed to replace IPv4, addressing the issue of IP address exhaustion.
ISP
Internet Service Providers provide users with access to the Internet.
JavaScript
A web-based language primarily used to alter the content that will be displayed by a web browser dynamically.
Kill
To stop a process.
Latency
Measure of delay in communication between two machines over a network.
Name Server
A computer dedicated to providing responses to requests for Domain Name information.
NIC
A Network Interface Card is a piece of hardware that allows a computer to connect to a network.
Packets
A unit of data transmitted over a network.
Paginating
Dividing content into separate pages.
Paired Keys
Two keys that are related in such a way that one can be used to encrypt data which can then only be decrypted by the other key.
Parallel Computing
A field of study focusing on the development of software that utilizes multiple cores to solve problems by compartmentalizing them into smaller sub-problems.
Parameters
A set of information included to help a process or function operate as intended.
Path
An expression of the location of a resource on a computer.
Plaintext
Information that is readable without performing any cryptographic operations.
Port
Identifies the type of application or process that is being accessed on a server.
Process
A program running on a computer.
Property-Value Pair
Syntax for CSS in which a property is followed by a ':' character and then a corresponding value (i.e., font-family:Serif; ).
Protocol
An agreed upon method for conducting a communication.
Public Key Encryption
A method of paired key encryption in which the key used to encrypt data is made available to anybody and its corresponding decryption key is kept secret.
Query
A request for information.
Recursive DNS
Queries authoritative name servers until it can provide an answer to a request for domain information.
Redundancy
The property of having many resources or components which all serve identical purposes.
Relative Frequencies
A measure of the rate at which characters are used in a document or language with respect to each other.
Relative Path
An expression of the path to a resource on a computer with respect to the current working directory.
Remote Shell
A tool for accessing a computer over a network via the command line.
Router
A piece of hardware responsible for dictating the flow of packets over a network.
Selector
An expression of the kind of content contained by a tag in HTML.
SSH
Secure Shell is a network protocol for secure transfer of data between computers.
SSL Certificate
A digital document used to verify the authenticity of a server or public key.
Subdomain
A portion of a domain that is allocated for use by the owner of the domain.
Substitution Cipher
A method of encryption and decryption in which each letter in the alphabet is replaced by another.
System Administrator
A person who is responsible for managing computers, networks, servers, and other computing resources for an organization or group.
TCP Handshake
The protocol by which a client and server machine establish communication for the transfer of data.
TCP/IP
The dominant set of protocols for the transfer of data over the Internet.
Third-Party Cookie
A cookie that is stored on a client computer by a domain other than the one that is currently requesting resources.
Top-Level Domain
Regions of the Internet that typically describe the general purpose or geographic location of a domain.
URL
Uniform Resource Locators are strings of characters that contain information about how to access a resource over the Internet.
Web Crawler
A softbot responsible for following hyperlinks throughout the Internet in order to provide information for the creation of a web index.
Web Index
A database storing information about web content.
WYSIWIG
Any editor that shows a representation of how the final product will look in real time as the user makes modifications.