Global Regents Exam Review Master Set

Review for the New York State Global Regents Exam. Created by Mrs. Stewart & Mr. Jacobs at NVHS. Know these terms!
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primary sources
• are from the events they are about
• diaries, letters, films & videos of events
geographer
• studies how landforms, water, climate, and location affect people and regions
archaeologist
• studies artifacts (human-made objects)
economist
• studies how goods and resources are used
physical map
• shows land forms (mountains, rivers, deserts)
political map
• shows borders (countries & cities)
cultural diffusion
• spread of ideas from one society to another
Neolithic Revolution
• when humans domesticated plants & animals
• lifestyles changed from nomadic hunting & gathering to settled farming
• many settled in fertile river valleys to farm
• so most early civilizations developed in river valleys
subsistence agriculture
• growing just enough to survive (NOT growing extra to trade or sell)
characteristics of civilizations
• specialized jobs
• public works (like canals & roads)
• art & architecture
• cities
• centralized government
• organized religion
• writing
• specialized jobs
traditional economy
• based on agriculture (farming) & barter (trade)
Code of Hammurabi
• first written laws
• "eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth"
• different punishments for different social classes
Himalaya Mountains
• isolated early China from early India
Bantu migrations
• African slash-and-burn farmers
• migrated across Africa for fresh soil
• spread language and knowledge
effect of mountains & islands on ancient Greece
• led to separate city-states (like Athens and Sparta)
Hellenistic culture
• Alexander the Great conquered Greece, Egypt, and Persia ... got as far as India
• created new culture combining all these
Twelve Tables
• written laws of Roman Empire
animism & Shinto
• beliefs that all things in nature have spirits
Buddhism
• Four Noble Truths & Eightfold Path
Confucianism
• filial piety
• superior should care for inferior
• inferior should honor superior
• led to civil service exams in China
golden age
• advances in math, science, medicine, art
Gupta dynasty
• India
• concept of zero
• decimal system
Tang and Song dynasties
• China
• porcelain
• gunpowder
• printing
Byzantine Empire
• used to be eastern half of Roman Empire
• Justinian Code: written laws
• preserved Greek and Roman culture
Constantinople
• capital of Byzantine Empire
• located between Mediterranean & Black seas
• located between Asia & Europe
• crossroads of trade
Byzantine influence on Russia
• Eastern Orthodox Christian Church
• Cyrillic alphabet
Golden Age of Islam
• preserved Greek and Roman learning
• medical books
• algebra
feudalism
• Europe's political system after fall of Rome
• land in exchange for military service
• decentralized
manorialism
• agricultural (based on farming)
• self-sufficient
• three-field system
Roman Catholic Church
• centralizing force in Middle Ages Europe
reasons Europeans fought in Crusades
• wanted to capture Holy Land
• Pope promised salvation (pardon from sins)
effects of Crusades
• trade between Europe and Middle East
• cultural diffusion between Europeans & Muslims
effect of geography on Korea
• location: "cultural bridge" between China & Japan
chivalry & bushido
• codes of conduct for medieval warriors (knights & samurai)
location of Mongol Empire
• most of Asia, parts of Eastern Europe
Pax Mongolia
• "Mongol Peace"
• political stability
• increased trade
Marco Polo & Ibn Battuta
• increased interest in China & Asia
• journals are important primary sources
bubonic plague (Black Death)
• spread from Asia to Europe through trade
• caused labor shortages
Commercial Revolution
• guilds, banking, capitalism
Italian city-states
• location: Mediterranean trade
• wealth & cultural diffusion led to Renaissance
Renaissance & humanism
• "rebirth" of Greek & Roman ideas
• secular (worldly, not religious)
• focused on individuals
Machiavelli
• wrote The Prince
• ruler should build power however he can
• "end justifies the means"
impact of printing press
• faster spread of ideas across Europe
• helped fuel Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
• Martin Luther's 95 Theses
• complained about Catholic indulgences
West African Kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai)
• trans-Saharan trade
• salt and gold
Zheng He
• Chinese admiral during Ming dynasty
• explored as far as Africa
Ottoman Empire
• conquered Byzantines: took Constantinople
• controlled eastern Mediterranean trade
navigational technology
• caravel
• compass
• astrolabe
• improved cartography (mapmaking)
pre-Columbian advanced civilizations
• Mayans & Aztecs in Mesoamerica
• Incas in South America
Incas
• empire in Andes mountains
• terrace farming
• roads
encomienda system
• Spanish monarchs gave land to colonizers
• also gave native people on land to be slaves
Middle Passage
• voyage from Africa to Americas with slaves
Spanish colonial classes
• peninsulares
• creoles
• mestizos & mulattoes
• native Americans & Africans
mercantilism
• economic system based on trade
• colonies were sources of raw resources
• colonies were markets for manufactured products
• countries wanted favorable balance of trade
Columbian Exchange
• cultural diffusion between Old World & New World
• Europe: new foods led to population increase
• Europe: mercantilism led to improved economy
• Africa: devastated by population loss from slavery
• Americas devastated by population loss from disease & conquest
divine right
• belief that God wanted monarch to rule
absolutism (absolute rule, absolute monarchy)
• divine right
• centralized power
• Louis XIV, Suleiman the Magnificent, the Greats
limited monarchy
• Magna Carta
• Glorious Revolution
• English Bill of Rights
Enlightenment
• based on Scientific Revolution
• use of reason
• natural rights (like life & liberty)
• John Locke
• consent of the governed (democracy)
Napoleon & Hitler
• both defeated in Russia by climate (winter)
Latin American independence leaders
• José de San Martin
• Simón Bolivar
• Toussaint L'Ouverture
nationalism
• unified Germany & Italy
• broke up Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire
why the Industrial Revolution began in England
• natural resources: iron & coal
laissez-faire capitalism
• government should stay out of economics
• supply and demand should determine prices in free market
Karl Marx & Communist Manifesto
• called for proletariat (workers) revolution to overthrow capitalists (owners)
Irish Potato Famine
• starvation due to crop failure
• led to many Irish migrating to other countries
Suez Canal & Panama Canal
• ocean shortcuts
Sepoy Mutiny & Boxer Rebellion
• attempts to remove foreign influence
Meiji Restoration
• Japan westernized, industrialized, modernized
reason for Japanese imperialism
• Japan lacked (needed) natural resources
causes of World War I
• militarism
• alliances
• imperialism
• nationalism
• assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Treaty of Versailles
• blamed Germany for WWI
• forced Germany to pay reparations
• took land away from Germany
Russian Revolution
• Lenin promised "Peace, Land, and Bread"
Kemal Atatürk
• westernized, modernized, democratized Turkey
Mohandas Gandhi
• nationalist who led Indian independence movement
• civil disobedience
• non-violence
five-year plans
• Stalin's attempts to increase Soviet industrial and agricultural output
totalitarianism
• government conrol
• censorship
economic hardship (Great Depression)
• why fascists came to power in Europe between World War I & World War II
League of Nations
• lack of military allowed Axis aggression that led to World War II
Marshall Plan & Truman Doctrine
• US aid to other countries to contain communism
NATO
• alliance against Soviet Union
Cold War events
• Cuban Missile Crisis
• Korean War
oil (petroleum)
• Middle East has it
• OPEC controls it
Chinese Communist Revolution
• led by Mao Zedong
• supported by Chinese peasants
Great Leap Forward
• Mao Zedong's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture
Four Modernizations
• Deng Xiaoping's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture
• more economic freedom (capitalism)
why India & Pakistan were split
• religious differences between Hindus & Muslims
Jomo Kenyatta
• African nationalist who led independence movement
apartheid
• segregation (separation) of races in South Africa
Nelson Mandela
• led anti-apartheid movement in South Africa
Iranian Revolution
• led to Islamist theocracy (government by religious leaders)
perestroika & glasnost
• Gorbachev's economic & political reform of Soviet Union
• led to breakup of Soviet Union
human rights violations
• massacres & genocides
• examples include massacre in Armenia, Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, Hutus & Tutsis in Rwanda
desertification
• deserts expanding due to overuse (over farming & overgrazing)
Green Revolution
• increased agricultural production thanks to 20th century technology
nuclear proliferation
• more countries getting nuclear weapons (like Iran & North Korea)
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