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A&P, UH Hilo

Adrenal outer cortex

Hormone: aldosterone
Target Organ: kidney, DCT
Effect: Increase Na+ reabsorption into bloodstream

Adrenal inner cortex

Hormone: androgens (testosterone and estrogen)
Target Organ: multiple sites in male&female
Effect: maintain secondary sex characteristics

Adrenal medulla

Hormone: epinephrine/nor-epinephrine
Target Organ: liver (glucose), heart (contractions), vessels (to gut, skin, kidney, periphery, heart, brain, skeletal muscles, bronchioles, pupils)
Effect: -Increase breakdown of glycogen, glucose, and fats
-Increase heart rate and contraction force
-Constrict: gut, skin, kidney, periphery
-Dilate: heart, brain, skeletal muscles
-Dilate: bronchioles, pupils

Thyroid (C cells)

Hormone: calcitronin
Target Organ: kidney, bone
Effect: Decrease Ca++ in blood and increase Ca++ in bone


Hormone: PTH
Target Organ: Kidney, bone
Effect: Increase Ca++ in bone, stimulates osteoclasts (to chew up old bone)


Hormone: erythropoietin
Target Organ: bone marrow
Effect: Produce RBC's (erythrocytes)

Kidney + Liver

Hormone: renin-angiotensin
Target Organs: bone marrow, adrenal, hypothalamus, peripheral vessels
Effect: produce RBC's (bone marrow), secrete aldosterone (adrenal gland), secrete ADH (hypothalamus), and constrict (peripheral vessels)

Pancreas (A cells)

Hormone: glucagon
Target Organ: liver, skeletal muscle cells
Effect: breakdown of glycogen (into glucose)

Pancreas (B cells)

Hormone: insulin
Target Organ: liver, body cells
Effect: glycogen synthesis, cells uptake of glucose

Pineal gland

Hormone: melatonin
Target Organ: ??? They DK
Effect: set circadian rythms, induce sleep, inhibit reproduction


Hormone: ANP
Target Organ: Kidney DCT, collecting ducts
Effect: Increase Na+ and H20 excretion

Adipose tissue

Hormone: leptin
Target Organ: hypothalamus
Effect: reduce appetite

Stomach (G cells)

Hormone: gastrin
Target Organ: stomach chief cells, parietal cells, smooth muscles.
Effect: Increase gastric secretions (HCl) and motility

Stomach (D cells)

Hormone: Somatostatin (SST)
Target Organ: Stomach G cells
Effect: Inhibits gastric activity (opposite of gastrin effects)

Parathyroid + Kidney

Hormone: calcitriol
Target Organ: intestines
Effect: Increase Ca++ absorption from intestinal tract

Intestine interoendocrine

Hormones: GIP, CCK, secretin, and motilin
Target Organ: stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, intestineal smooth muscles.
Effects: *Look back at ch.24!

Releasing Hormones come from where (mostly)?


The Hormones released by RH are found where (mostly)?



Another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

T3, T4

Releasing Hormone: TRH
Hormone: TSH
Target Gland: Thyroid-follicles
Hormone: _______?
Effects: Increase Cell metabolism


Releasing Hormone: CRH
Hormone: ACTH
Target Gland: adrenal-mid cortex
Effects: Increase glucose synthesis, Decrease inflammation (*anti-inflammatory), and increase glycogen formation.


Releasing Hormone: GHRH/GHIH
Hormone: GH
Target Gland: Liver
Effects: Increase protein synthesis & cell growth
Breakdown of lipids+glycogen


NON-Releasing Hormone: ______?
Target Gland: kidney, DCT, collecting ducts
Effects: Increase H20 reabsorption to blood


NON-Releasing Hormone: ________?
Target Gland: Uterus, and mammary glands
Effects: -stimulates birth contractions -stimulates mammary gland milk ejection

Where are the non-releasing hormones found?



Another name for the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

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