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Intrapulmonary Pressure

-Pressure inside the alveoli
-Size of the pressure difference varies greatly with degree of physical activity and conditioning.

Intrapleural pressure

-Pressure between the parietal and visceral pleurae.
-Prevents lungs from collapsing too much by opposing the recoil of the elastic fibers in the lung tissue.
-4 mmHg (average) to -18 mmHg during powerful inhalation.

Respiratory Pump

-Results from the cyclical changes in the intrapleural pressure

Tidal volume (TV)

-Amount of air moved into (inhale) or out of (exhale) lungs during a single respiratory cycle.

Resting tidal volume

-Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions.
-500 ml in both males and females

Expiratory reserve volume (EVR)

-The amount of air that you can voluntarily expel AFTER you have completed a normal, quite respiratory cycle.
-1000-1200 ml
-Use your accessory expiratory muscles

Residual Volume

-Amount of air remaining in the lungs even after a maximal exhalation.
--1200 ml in males; 1100 ml in females

Minimal Volume

-Amount of air that remains in the lungs even after complete collapse.
-30-120 ml (surfactant prevents collapse of alveolar surfaces).
-Cannot be measured in a healthy, living person.

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

-Amount of air that can be taken in over and above the tidal volume
-IRV in males is about 3300 ml
-IRV in females is about 1900 ml

Inspiratory capacity

-The amount of air that can be drawn into the lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle has been completed.
-IC = TV + IRV

Functional Residual capacity (FRC)

-Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle has been completed.

Vital capacity

-Maximum amount of air that can move into or out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle.
-VC = ERV + TV + IRV
-VC = 4800 ml in males; 3400 ml in females

Total lung capacity

-The total volume of the lungs.
-TLC = VC + RV
-TLC = 6000 ml in males; 4500 ml in females

Breaths you take each minute

-Resting adult rate ranges from 12 to 18 breaths each minute.
-Approximately one breath for every four heartbeats
-Children take 18-20 breaths/minute

Respiratory Minute Volume

-Amount of air moved each minute (VE)

Alveolar Ventilation

-Respiratory minute volume indicates how much air is moving into and out of the respiratory tract.
-Not all of the air actually contacts the respiratory membranes of alveoli.

Atomic Dead Space

-The volume of air staying in the conducting passageways is the ?

Alveolar Ventilation

-Alveolar ventilation rate is more important than the respiratory minute volume, because it determines the rate of delivery of oxygen to the alveoli


-Forced breathing.
-Involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements.
-Requires use of accessory muscles of respiration


-Used to differentiate between obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
-Determine the extent or progress of the disease

Increased Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) occurs in?

-Obstructive diseases
-Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis

Decreased or normal FRC occurs in?

-Restrictive diseases
-Pulmonary fibrosis

Forced vital capacity

-Measures the amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath and then exhales forcefully and rapidly.
-FVC is reduced in patients with restrictive pulmonary disease.

Forced expiratory volume

-Same procedure, but examines the percentage of the vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals of the FVC test (amount of air exhaled during the first second),
-Healthy people can exhale 75-85% of their FVC in the first second.

Each Hb molecule has?

-4 heme units and therefore can carry 4 oxygen molecules
-Therefore, each RBC can potentially carry over 1 billion oxygen molecules.

Lower pH changes?

-changes the shape of the Hb molecules and they release their oxygen more readily.

Carbonic acid-Bicarbonate buffer system

-stabilizes arterial blood pH at 7.4 +-0.02

When PCO2 rises

-The rate of carbonic acid formation increases
-H+ diffuse out of the RBCs, and plasma pH drops.

When PCO2 decreases

-H+ diffuse into the RBCs, and plasma pH rises.


- (slow, shallow breathing)
-Carbonic acid in blood increases significantly.
-Carbon dioxide builds up in the blood
-Decreases arterial blood pH (acidosis, pH lower than 7.35)


-(rapid, deep breathing)
-Carbonic acid in blood decreases.
-Carbon dioxide decreases
-Increases arterial blood pH (alkalosis, pH 7.45)

changes in pH and oxygen concentrations are monitored by ______ in the aortic and carotid bodies which stimulate the _______.



-(increase in arterial carbon dioxide typically caused by hypoventilation) sensed by chemorecerptors in carotid and aortic bodies. Stimulate neurons in medulla oblongata, respiratory centers increase rate and depth of respiration.


-(low arterial carbon dioxide typically from hyperventilation) results in decrease in chemoreceptor activity which slows respiratory rate.

The pressure inside the alveoli is called ________________.

-Intrapulmonary pressure

Intrapleural pressure is the pressure between the _________ and __________ pleurae.


Disruption of intrapleural pressure by breaking the fluid bond between the pleurae is called a pneumothorax which can result in a collapsed lung or _____________.


The amount of air moved into or out of the lungs during a single respiratory cycle is the _______________.

-Tidal volume

The amount of air that you can voluntarily expel following a quiet respiratory cycle is the ___________.

-Expiratory reserve volume

The ___________ is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation.

-Residual volume

The __________________ is the amount of air that can be take in over and above the tidal volume.

-Inspiratory reserve volume

The amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute is the _____________.

-Alveolar ventilation

Quiet breathing is called __________ and is accomplished mainly by the _________,whereas forced breathing is called _________ and requires the use of accessory respiratory muscles.


Obstructive and restrictive breathing disorders are collectively called ___________.


A technique used to assess respiratory function is called _______________.


Hb molecules will release more/less oxygen at a pH of 7.2 than they will at pH 7.4.


Hypercapnia is typically a result of ____________.


Hypocapnia speeds up/slows down respiratory rate.


____is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.

-Resting tidal volume

In quiet breathing..

-Inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called?


If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he/she cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he/she expelled is the

-Vital capacity

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