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47 terms

Learning RM

Prep for AP exam
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Learning
relatively permanent or stable change in behavior as a result of experience
Classical Conditioning
discovered by Pavlov
pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to eventually bring conditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus
This is a stimulus that automatically triggers a response—you don't need to be trained to react. With Pavlov and his dog, the food was the unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response
This is a response that is automatically triggered, and needs no training. With Pavlov, the dog salivating was the unconditioned response.
Neutral Stimulus
This is a stimulus that originally has nothing to do with a response. With Pavlov, the tuning fork is the neutral stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
This is a stimulus that used to be neutral, and have nothing to do with a response. But, because it is paired with the UCS, now it gets a response. With Pavlov, this is the tuning fork. Note that the NS becomes the CS.
Conditioned response
This is the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. In Pavlov's experiments, this is the salivation when the dog hears the tuning fork. Usually, the UCR and the CR are very similar.
Forward Conditioning
when CS is presented before the US (most effective)
Delay conditioning
when CS is present until the US begins Trace conditioning
Trace conditioning
when CS is removed some time before the US is presented
Simultaneous conditioning
when CS and US are presented at the same time
Backward conditioning
when US is presented before the CS (usually ineffective)
generalization
Things similar to the Conditioned Stimuli start producing conditioned responses from the animal
Discrimination
distinguishing between similar but distinct stimuli
Acquisition
when pairing of natural and neutral stimuli have occurred enough that neutral stimulus alone will elicit the conditioned response
Extinction
- Repeatedly presenting the CS in the absence of the UCS
- In classical conditioning, a previously-reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, so the behavior gradually disappears.
Spontaneous recovery
where original response disappears, but then is elicited again by the previous CS at a later time
Second-order conditioning
Pairing a CS with a secondary CS, response might not be as strong, higher order conditioning are rarely effective
Conditioned taste aversion CTA
AKA Garcia effect, when animals eat a food resulting in nausea, they will never eat it again (even if it wasn't the food's fault)
Stimulus generalization
demonstrated by CTA, don't want to eat similar food to one who made you vomit before
Contiguity approach
C Conditioning works because the US and CS were paired in time (thought by Watson and Pavlov)
Contingency approach
Robert Rescoral believes CS and US get paired because CS comes to predict the US
Operant Conditioning
The process of learning the association between a voluntary behavior and its consequences (BF Skinner) (first discovered by Edward Thorndike)
Operant vs. Reinforcer
Operant is the action
reinforcer is the reward
Shaping
Procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide an animal's action toward a desired behavior.
AKA Differential reinforcement of successive approximations
natural reinforcement
doesn't need o be learned to be reinforced, food, water
Primary reinforcement
food, water, sex
Secondary reinforcement
provided by learned reinforcers (money)
Positive reinforcement
reward or event that increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Negative Reinforcement
removal of an aversive event (taking a pill to get rid of headaches)
Omission training
seeks to decrease the frequency of behavior by withholding the reward until the desired behavior is demonstrated (ground)
schedule of reinforcement
how often organism receives reward for response
Continuous reinforcement
every time they perform, they get a reward
Fastest results, but fastest extinction
Intermittent
reinforce only some of the time
slow to learn, slow extinction
Fixed ratio schedule
Animal rewarded after a fixed number of correct responses
variable ratio schedule
The number of responses required for reinforcement changes (slot machine in Vegas) (least likely to get extinct)
Fixed interval schedule
Behavior is rewarded after a specific amount of time has elapsed
Variable interval schedule
The time between reinforcers changes.
token economy
artificial economy based on tokens
tokens are secondary reinforcers
learned helplessness
when consistent effort fails to bring rewards, subject will stop trying (depression is effect)
Daniel Hebb
proposed human learning takes place by neurons forming new connections with one another or by strengthening of connections that already exist
Eric Kandel
classically conditioned Aplysia to withdraw their gills
Neuro-modulators
strengthen the synapses between the sensory neurons
long-term potential
Receiving neurons of long-term memories require fewer neurotransmitter molecules to make them fire
social learning
emphasizes mental process in learning (like cognitive learning) but also emphasizes environmental factors and behavioral factors
Edward Tolman
trained rats to run mazes to obtain food reward at the end of a maze
latent learning
learning that is not outwardly expressed until the situation calls for it