relatively permanent or stable change in behavior as a result of experience
discovered by Pavlov pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to eventually bring conditioned response
This is a stimulus that automatically triggers a response—you don't need to be trained to react. With Pavlov and his dog, the food was the unconditioned stimulus.
This is a response that is automatically triggered, and needs no training. With Pavlov, the dog salivating was the unconditioned response.
This is a stimulus that originally has nothing to do with a response. With Pavlov, the tuning fork is the neutral stimulus.
This is a stimulus that used to be neutral, and have nothing to do with a response. But, because it is paired with the UCS, now it gets a response. With Pavlov, this is the tuning fork. Note that the NS becomes the CS.
This is the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. In Pavlov's experiments, this is the salivation when the dog hears the tuning fork. Usually, the UCR and the CR are very similar.
when CS is presented before the US (most effective)
when CS is present until the US begins Trace conditioning
when CS is removed some time before the US is presented
when CS and US are presented at the same time
when US is presented before the CS (usually ineffective)
Things similar to the Conditioned Stimuli start producing conditioned responses from the animal
distinguishing between similar but distinct stimuli
when pairing of natural and neutral stimuli have occurred enough that neutral stimulus alone will elicit the conditioned response
- Repeatedly presenting the CS in the absence of the UCS - In classical conditioning, a previously-reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, so the behavior gradually disappears.
where original response disappears, but then is elicited again by the previous CS at a later time
Pairing a CS with a secondary CS, response might not be as strong, higher order conditioning are rarely effective
Conditioned taste aversion CTA
AKA Garcia effect, when animals eat a food resulting in nausea, they will never eat it again (even if it wasn't the food's fault)
demonstrated by CTA, don't want to eat similar food to one who made you vomit before
C Conditioning works because the US and CS were paired in time (thought by Watson and Pavlov)
Robert Rescoral believes CS and US get paired because CS comes to predict the US
The process of learning the association between a voluntary behavior and its consequences (BF Skinner) (first discovered by Edward Thorndike)
Operant vs. Reinforcer
Operant is the action reinforcer is the reward
Procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide an animal's action toward a desired behavior. AKA Differential reinforcement of successive approximations
doesn't need o be learned to be reinforced, food, water
food, water, sex
provided by learned reinforcers (money)
reward or event that increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
removal of an aversive event (taking a pill to get rid of headaches)
seeks to decrease the frequency of behavior by withholding the reward until the desired behavior is demonstrated (ground)
schedule of reinforcement
how often organism receives reward for response
every time they perform, they get a reward Fastest results, but fastest extinction
reinforce only some of the time slow to learn, slow extinction
Fixed ratio schedule
Animal rewarded after a fixed number of correct responses
variable ratio schedule
The number of responses required for reinforcement changes (slot machine in Vegas) (least likely to get extinct)
Fixed interval schedule
Behavior is rewarded after a specific amount of time has elapsed
Variable interval schedule
The time between reinforcers changes.
artificial economy based on tokens tokens are secondary reinforcers
when consistent effort fails to bring rewards, subject will stop trying (depression is effect)
proposed human learning takes place by neurons forming new connections with one another or by strengthening of connections that already exist
classically conditioned Aplysia to withdraw their gills
strengthen the synapses between the sensory neurons
Receiving neurons of long-term memories require fewer neurotransmitter molecules to make them fire
emphasizes mental process in learning (like cognitive learning) but also emphasizes environmental factors and behavioral factors
trained rats to run mazes to obtain food reward at the end of a maze
learning that is not outwardly expressed until the situation calls for it