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30 terms

Glencoe Chapter 2

Glencoe Biology 2007 Chapter 2 Vocabulary
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ecology
the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interactions the organisms have with their environments are studied
biosphere
the portion of Earth that supports life
biotic factors
the living factors in an organism's environment
abiotic factors
the nonliving factors in an organism's environment
population
individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time
biological community
a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time
ecosystem
a biological commuunity and all of the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
biome
a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities
habitat
where an organism lives
niche
a role or position that an organism has in its environment
predation
the act of one organism consuming an other organism for food
symbiosis
the close relationship that forms when two or more species live together
mutualism
a relationship between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other
commensalism
a relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither hurt nor helped
parasitism
a relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another
autotroph
an organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food
heterotroph
an organism that gets its energy requirements from consuming other organisms
herbivore
a heterotroph that only eats plants
carnivore
a heterotroph that preys on other heterotrophs
omnivore
a heterotroph that eats both plants and animals
detritivore
an organism which eat fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem and returns nutrients to the environment
trophic level
step in a food chain or web
food chain
a simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem
food web
a model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathyways in which energy flows through a group of organisms
biomass
the total mass of living matter at a trophic level
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
nutrient
a chemical substance that an organism must obtain from its environment
biogeochemical cycle
the exchange of matter through the biosphere
nitrogen fixation
the process of capturing and converting nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants
denitrification
the conversion by bacteria of fixed nitrogen compounds to nitrogen gas