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Stock Market Crash

October 24, 1929, this occurred and put the U.S. into crisis and depression. Everyone tried to sell and no one would buy. There were bankruptcies, bank failures and unemployment. Led to the Great Depression.

indirect relief


Bonus Army


Franklin Delano Roosevelt


Keynesian Economics

the idea that the government can reverse the economic downfall by infusing money into the economy

First New Deal


Second New Deal


"relief recovery and reform"

the 3 Rs of the New Deal

FDR versus the Supreme Court


Schechter v US


Butler v US



providing temporary help for a thing or a group of people


a more long lasting form of relief


a permanent solution to a problem

Robert Oppenheimer


Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941; a massive Japanese attack on US military bases at the ports in Hawaii



D-Day Invasion

invasion led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy; June 6th, 1944, America won, TURNING POINT of WWII; first time allied forces successfully set foot in Europe

Dwight Eisenhower


Manhattan Project


Enola Gay






Japanese-American concentration camps

camps in America set up after FDR signed a legislation and the Supreme Court ruled the camps constitutional; camps in desert areas such as Utah and Colorado; filled by over 112,000 Japanese-Americans taken from California, Oregon, etc.; only 60,000 survived

Panay Incident


Neutrality Acts


Lend-Lease Acts


Adolf Hitler

founder of the Nazi Party and responsible for the Holocaust

Josef Stalin

leader of Soviet Union, sent millions of untrined Russians into WWII

Franklin D. Roosevelt

president during WWII and decided ti enter WWII on the Allied side

Triple Pact

Japan's pact with Germany and Italy

Rome-Berlin Axis

Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939. The term Axis Powers came to include Japan as well.

Allied Expeditionary Force

Official designation of the Allied forces assembled in England to carry out the mission of invading the European continent and undertaking operations to defeat Germany and her allies.


Blitzkrieg was a tactic used by Nazis based on speed & surprise. A military force based on light tank units supported by planes and infantry.

Pearl Harbor

was the reason why America entered WWII


The importance of the battle lies in the fact that it turned the war in the Pacific in favor of the US. The loss of four aircraft carriers essentially gutted the Japanese Navy as an offensive force. After Midway, Japanese power in the Pacific declined steadily, and the Japanese were defeated in every battle until the end of the war.

D-Day Invasion [June 6th, 1944]

a major turning point of World War II, particularly in Europe. Although the initiative had been seized from the Germans some months before, so far the western Allies had been unable to mass sufficient men and material to risk an attack in northern Europe. By the beginning of June 1944, the United States and Great Britain had accumulated in the British Isles the largest number of men and the greatest amount of materiel ever assembled to launch and sustain an amphibious attack.

Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge, fought over the winter months of 1944 - 1945, was the last major Nazi offensive against the Allies in World War II. The battle was a last ditch attempt by Hitler to split the Allies in two in their drive towards Germany and destroy their ability to supply themselves. The Nazi's surprise attack caught the Allies off guard. However, the success of the Germans lasted just two days. Despite punching a bulge into the Allies front line, the Germans could not capitalize on this. The Germans had advanced 60 miles in two days but from December 18th on, they were in a position of stalemate. The fighting was ferocious. By mid-January 1945, the effect of lack of fuel was becoming evident as the Germans had to simply abandon their vehicles. The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought by the Americans in World War II. 600,000 American troops were involved in the battle. The Americans lost 81,000 men while the Germans lost 100,000 killed, wounded and captured.

Battle of Iwo Jima

The Battle of Iwo Jima took place in February 1945. The capture of Iwo Jima was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East. Combined with the attacks on Iwo Jima, was America's desire to finally destroy Japan's merchant fleet so that the Japanese mainland could not be supplied from the food-rich sectors of South East Asia which Japan still had control over. There were two airfields on the island - under Japan's control; they could be used by Japanese fighter planes to attack American bombers on their flights to Japan. Under American control, the airfields could be used as emergency landing bases for damaged airplanes in the bombing raids. Knowing that the island was of such importance, the Japanese were determined to keep control of it. The tiny island had taken America over one month to take. The Marines lost 6,891 men killed and 18,070 wounded. Out of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers on the island, only 212 were taken prisoners. What the battle did show the Americans was how far the Japanese would go to defend their country - a decision that was to influence the use of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Expansion of Nazi Germany before the war

At first, they moved into German-speaking areas that had been taken away from Germany by the Versailles Treaty. Hitler did not think the nations of the world would fight for Germany as they did in World War I. He thought they had gone soft. And he was right. They did not fight. The Saar Basin was the richest coal area in Europe. It was taken away from Germany by the Versailles Treaty, which was administered by the League of Nations, with the coal going to France. In January, 1933, Germany re-incorporated the Saar Basin. They re-militarized the Rhineland, violating the Versailles Treaty. In March, 1938, they entered Austria; one month later, 99.7% of Austria voted for union with Germany. And the final capstone was the German-speaking southern part of Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland. Hitler said he wanted it because there were many German nationals in Sudetenland. There was one problem: Czechoslovakia had a mutual treaty with Britain and France. If Czechoslovakia was invaded, Britain and France would have to respond.

Rise of Fascism in Italy

Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, perceived himself as a contemporary Roman Emperor, and set to establishing a new Italian Empire. With an expansionist and militarist agenda, Italian colonialism penetrated Africa in competition with the British and French empires. The first Italian Fascist colony was Eritrea, in East Africa; then Libya, Somalia, and Ethiopia. The Fascists ruled via authoritarian government, especially in combating insurgents and guerrillas attempting to expel the Italians from their colonized countries

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed a ten-year nonaggression pact on August 23, 1939, in which each signatory promised not to attack the other. The German-Soviet Pact enabled Germany to attack Poland on September 1, 1939, without fear of Soviet intervention. On September 3, 1939, Britain and France, having guaranteed to protect Poland's borders five months earlier, declared war on Germany. These events marked the beginning of World War II.

V-E Day [Victory in Europe Day]

marks the day of victory for the Allies in World War II, May 8th 1945

V-J Day [Victory over Japan Day]

commemorates Japan's surrender to the Allies at the end of World War II, Japan surrendered on August 14-15 (because of the time differences), 1945 and the U.S.'s commemoration is on September 2nd because that was when the signing of the surrender document occurred


the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority".

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