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Terms in this set (97)
the basic unit of all matter.
Atoms combine chemically to form the larger particles called molecules.
have tiny specialized parts called organelles
organelle serves as the information and control center of the cell.
Four primary types of tissue are found in the body
muscle, nervous, connective, and epithelial.
a coordinated group of tissues and organs that work together to perform specific functions.
refers to all of the physical and chemical changes that occur in the body.
is the ability to maintain a steady and stable internal environment made up of these factors.
are measurable indications of how the body is functioning.
Superior is also called
cephalic and cranial (toward the head).
Inferior is also called
caudal (toward the tail)
is the front (belly) surface of the body and is also called ventral.
is the back surface of the body and is also called dorsal.
Medial structures are those that are closer to the midline of the body than they are to another structure. For example, the hepatic artery is medial to the common duct.
toward the side of the body. For example, the adnexa are lateral to the uterus.
When a structure is closer to the body midline or point of attachment to the trunk,For example, the hepatic duct is proximal to the common bile duct.
means farther from the midline or point of attachment to the trunk. For example, the sphincter of Oddi is distal to the common bile duct.
structures are those located close to the surface of the body. For example, the rectus abdominus muscles are superficial to the transverse abdominis muscles.
structures are those located farther inward, away from the body surface.
Divides that body into equal halves
Lengthwise plane that runs from side to side
Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
A. Transpyloric plane
B. Subcostal plane
C. intertubercular plane
D. Right lateral plane
E. Left lateral plane
F linea semilunaris
G xyphoid process
The upper horizontal line joins the lowest point of the costal margin on each side of the body.
The lowest horizontal line joins the tubercles on the iliac crests.
The horizontal plane passes through the pylorus, duodenal junction, neck of the pancreas, and hilum of the kidneys.
the cavity The heart is surrounded by
Lies on the posterior abdominal wall behind the parietal peritoneum
Extends from the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the twelfth rib to the sacrum and the iliac crests
The visceral organs in the abdominal cavity are the following:
Part of the large intestine
Lies posterior to the lower ribs.
Majority of the right lobe is in the right hypochondrium and epigastrium.
Left lobe lies in the epigastrium and left hypochondrium.
The fundus of the gallbladder usually lies opposite the tip of the right ninth costal cartilage.
Lies in the left hypochondrium under cover of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs.
Its long axis corresponds to the tenth rib.
In adults, the spleen usually does not project forward of the midaxillary line
Lies in the epigastrium.
The head of the pancreas usually lies below and to the right, the neck lies on the transpyloric plane, and the body and tail lie above and to the left.
The right kidney lies slightly lower than the left.
Each kidney moves about 1 inch in a vertical direction during full respiratory movement of the diaphragm.
The hilum of the kidney lies on the transpyloric plane, approximately three fingers' width from the midline.
Lies in the transpyloric plane between the esophagus and the small intestine
Tubular organ that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the beginning of the large intestine
Extends from the small intestine to the anal canal
Bladder and uterus
Both lie in the lower pelvic region in the hypogastric plane.
dome shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdominal cavity
right crus of the diaphragm
arises from the sides of the bodies of the first three lumbar vertebrae.
left crus of the diaphragm
arises from the sides of the bodies of the first two lumbar vertebrae.
medial arcuate ligament
is the thickened upper margin of the fascia that covers the anterior surface of the psoas muscle
lateral arcuate ligament
is the thickened upper margin of the fascia that covers the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle.
The diaphragm inserts into a
Superiorly the abdominal wall is
formed by the diaphragm.
Inferiorly the wall is continuous
with the pelvic cavity through the pelvic inlet.
Anteriorly the wall is formed above by
the lower part of the thoracic cage and below by several layers of muscles—the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis.
Fibrous band that stretches from the xiphoid to the symphysis pubis
External oblique muscle
Arises from the lower eight ribs
Fans out to be inserted into the xiphoid process, linea alba, pubic crest, pubic tubercle, and anterior half of the iliac crest
Superficial inguinal ring
Triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis
Lies superior and medial to the pubic tubercle
The spermatic cord or round ligament of the uterus passes through this opening.
Formed between the anterosuperior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle, where the lower border of the aponeurosis is folded backward on itself
The lateral part of the posterior edge of the inguinal ligament gives origin to part of the internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscles.
Formed by the aponeuroses of the muscles of the lateral group
Kidneys, ureters, and adrenal glands
Aorta and inferior vena cava
Bladder, uterus, and prostate gland
Ascending and descending colon
Most of the duodenum
Anterior pararenal space
Located between the anterior surface of the renal fascia (Gerota fascia) and the posterior area of the peritoneum
Both the ascending and descending colon, pancreas, and duodenum are in this area.
Posterior pararenal space
Found between the posterior renal fascia and the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
Only fat and vessels are found within this space.
Located directly around the kidney
Completely enclosed by renal fascia
Contains the kidneys, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and perirenal fat
The pelvis is divided into the
pelvis major (false pelvis) and pelvis minor (true pelvis).
Organs within the pelvic cavity include:
Part of the large intestine
in the male the peritoneum is reflected onto the upper part of the posterior surface of the bladder and the seminal vesicles that form the
The male pelvic cavity has a small outpocket
scrotal cavity, which contains the testes.
The uterus lies anterior to the rectum and posterior to the bladder and divides the pelvic peritoneal space into anterior and posterior pouches.
The vesicouterine pouch is the anterior pouch.
The rectouterine pouch is the posterior pouch.
Also called the pouch of Douglas
extend laterally from the fundus of the uterus.
the fallopian tubes are enveloped by a fold of peritoneum known as the
A muscular "sling" consisting of
coccygeus and levator ani muscles forms the inferior boundary of the true pelvis and separates it from the perineum.
Contains the bladder and reproductive organs.
Contains the posterior cul-de-sac, rectosigmoid muscle, perirectal fat, and presacral space.
Obturator internus muscles
Line the lateral pelvic wall.
Are symmetrically aligned along the lateral border of the pelvis with a concave medial border
psoas and iliopsoas muscles
Lie along the posterior and lateral margins of the pelvis major
form the posterior pelvic wall.
levator ani muscles and pubococcygeus muscles
form the pelvic diaphragm.
The coccygeus muscles
are round, concave muscles that lie more posterior than the obturator internus muscles.
The posterior triangle is the
the anterior triangle is the
Serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and clothes the abdominal viscera
Formed by a single layer of cells called the mesothelium
The mesothelium rests on a thin layer of connective tissue.
Peritoneum is divided by two layers
Parietal peritoneum is the portion that lines the abdominal wall but does not cover a viscus.
and the Visceral peritoneum is the portion that covers an organ.
is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum.
accumulation of fluid is known as
is a two-layered fold of peritoneum.
A two-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the stomach to another viscous organ
Attached to the greater curvature of the stomach
Slings the lesser curvature of the stomach to the undersurface of the liver.
Ligament that connects the stomach to the spleen
The peritoneal cavity may be divided into two parts
the greater scanned lesser sac
Opening to the lesser sac in the abdomen
Anterior boundary: Free border of the lesser omentum containing the common bile duct, hepatic artery, and portal vein
Posterior boundary: Inferior vena cava
Superior boundary: Caudate process of the caudate lobe of the liver
Inferior boundary: First part of the duodenum
Attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and to the undersurface of the diaphragm
Lies in the free borders of this ligament
Peritoneum leaves the kidney and passes to the hilus of the spleen as the posterior layer
Visceral peritoneum covers the spleen and is reflected onto the greater curvature of the stomach as the anterior layer of the
Potential Spaces in the Body
the result of the complicated arrangement of the peritoneum in the region of the liver.
the right posterior subphrenic space that lies among the right lobe of the liver, the right kidney, and the right colic flexure.
Common location for fluid collections, such as ascites, blood, and infection
areas known as peritoneal recesses.
(1) where the duodenum becomes the jejunum, and (2) where the ileum joins the cecum.
The arrangement of the ascending and descending colon, the attachments of the transverse mesocolon, and the mesentery of the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall result in the formation of four
right medial paracolic gutter
closed off from the pelvic cavity inferiorly by the mesentery of the small intestine.
left lateral gutter
is separated from the area around the spleen by the phrenicocolic ligament.
Oblique passage through the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall
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Abdomen chapters 7,8,10
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