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science that investigates and explains the structure and properties of matter


the measure of the amount of matter that an object contains

physical properties

characteristics of a sample of matter that can be observed or measured without any change in its identity


what matter is made up of


large enough to be seen


too small to be seen with a light microscope

scientific model

helps explain macroscopic observations

qualitative observation

made without measurements

quantitative observation

uses measurements


matter with the same fixed composition and properties

examples of a pure substance

elements & compounds


combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed

physical changes

changes in matter that do not involve a change in the identity

examples of physical changes

boiling, freezing, melting

examples of mixtures

soil, air, seawater

examples of physical properties

melting point, color, density, physical state

heterogeneous mixture

does not have a uniform composition and individual substances remain distinct

homogeneous mixture

has a constant composition


substance being dissolved


substance that dissolves the solute

aqueous solution

the solvent is water

pure substance

made of only one substance


type of pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances; chemical combination of two or more different elements joined in a fixed proportion


type of pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

chemical formula

combination of the chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element

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