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JOY Academy


created by Congress in 1980 to clean up hazardous waste sites. Money for the fund comes from taxing chemical products (Carter policy)

"revenue sharing"

A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose. Nixon policy

Pendelton Civil Service Act

placed most federal government employees on the merit system; marked the end of the so-called spoils system; required government jobs to be filled on the basis of competitive exams

Gentleman's Agreement

Activated by Roosevelt. Suggested that Japan would limit it's emigration to the U.S if the U.S would end segregation of Asians in public schools

Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

First national legislation against monopolies; prohibited trusts, restraint of trade, and monopolization, but vague and ineffective

Crop-Lien system

merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants.

Timber and Stone Act of 1878

allowed for the sale of 160 acre parcels of the public domain considered "unfit for culture" and "valued chiefly for timber"

Homestead Act of 1862

allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30

Open Door policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Chinese Exclusion Act

Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat.


Southern society formed in 1866 to prevent freed men and women from exercising their rights and to help whites regain power; revised in the 1920's to terrorize foreigners, Catholics, Jews, etc.,

Black codes

Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments after Reconstruction

Great Migration

movement of over 1.5 million African Americans into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Dawes Act of 1887

dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American

Battle of Wounded Knee

The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops in this engagement

Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

Sand Creek Massacre

(1864) attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen; resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members

"termination" policy

federal government withdrew all official recognition of tribes as legal entities, administratively separate from state governments, and made them subject to the same local jurisdictions as white residents, while also encouraging assimilation into white society.

Election of 1876

Republican Rutherford Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden run for President. Hayes promises to end the Reconstruction and allows Southern states to establish the black codes. Caused the end of Reconstruction

Congressional reconstruction plan

14th amendment adopted; Divided the South into 5 military districts and stationed troops in each district; confederate leaders cannot vote until new constitutions are created; 15th amendment adopted

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote short of removal

Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plan

Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slavery and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold office

Crime of '73

Congress ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. This was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers, and believed in the unlimited coinage of silver.

Freedman's Bureau

federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South

Sandra Day O'Connor

first female Supreme Court justice

Roe v. Wade

(1973) the United States Supreme Court legalized abortion

Bakke vs. University of California

(1978) affirmative action case; determined that quotas for admitting minorities to college is reverse discrimination & illegal, created point system for college admission

Brown vs. Board of Education

(1954) landmark case overturning Plessy vs. Ferguson, and stating that "separate but equal" is inherently unequal. Ends legal segregation for African Americans and leads to integration of schools

Amendment 13

abolished slavery

Amendment 14

citizenship, due process, equal protection

Amendment 15

voting rights for African Americans

Amendment 16

Income tax

Amendment 17

direct election of Senators

Amendment 18

Prohibition of alcoholic beverages

Amendment 19

Women's suffrage

Amendment 20

Presidential terms; Sessions of Congress

Amendment 21

Repeal of prohibition

Amendment 22

Limit on number of President's terms

Amendment 24

Abolition of poll tax

Amendment 25

Presidential succession and disability

Amendment 26

18 year voting age

bill of rights

first 10 amendments to the constitution


heads of various departments in the Executive branch who aid in decision making

de facto segregation

segregation that occurs from nongovernmental action (by the public)

de jure segregation

segregation that occurs because of law


Name given to Southerners, often Unionists, accused of plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their political influence

Populist (People's) Party

Called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers


a senator who gains the floor has the right to go on talking until he/she relinquishes the floor to another

city machines

associated with big cities when one party dominated and patronage was given to people who voted for their candidates


the process of removing certain officials, including the President, from office. Does not mean the official will be removed unless he/she is found guilty of an impeachable offense


Name given to northerners who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;


Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics.

Panic of 1873

Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)

1893 depression

Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.

1920 census

revealed that for the first time, a majority of the American people lived in urban areas

William Jennings Bryant

ran against McKinley in the 1896 election, gave his famous "cross of gold" speech, wanted the silver/bimetallism standard.

Carter Domestic Policy

Stagnant economy; gas lines; "Malaise" speech, pardoned Vietnamese draft dodgers, tried to make a comprehensive health care system, added Dept of Education and Dept of energy to Cabinet


40th President of the United States (1911-); former actor and governor; patriotic, "The Great Communicator"

Reagan Foreign Policy

Reagan doctrine- the policy of supporting anti communist insurgents to actively push back the influence of the Soviet Union; Won Cold War; Negotiated with Gorbachev (Geneva Accords); "tear down this wall"
"peace through strength"- strategic defense initiative "Star wars" (SDI); Iran-Contra affair;

Reagan Domestic Policy

Challenger Disaster (comforter in chief); Reaganomics, trickle down economics, shrink government, build up military,


Elected Vice president in 1944; 33rd President, after FDR's death


Five-star general in the United States Army (D-Day) and the 34th President of the United States


35th president; President of the US from 1961 to 1963;


36th President of the United States. Assumed the presidency after Kennedy's death

President Richard Nixon

Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States

Truman foreign policy

Containment- The U.S foreign policy that sought to prevent communism from spreading

Eisenhower foreign policy

Domino Theory- If vietnam fell to communism, all of Southeast Asia would too

Kennedy foreign policy

Tried to stop the spread of communism; Bay of Pigs; Cuban Missile crisis

Johnson foreign policy

Escalation in Vietnam; Gulf of Tonkin resolution

Nixon foreign policy

Vietnam (negotiated a ceasefire). Opened relations with China and enacted detente with the Soviet Union; Vietnamization; Bombed Cambodia

Truman domestic policy

Fair Deal - proposals were aid to education, universal health insurance, and repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act.
Also desegregation of the armed forces

Eisenhower domestic policy

Interstate highway system, expansion of Social Security; enforced desegregation of Little Rock public schools; Operation Wetback (send illegals back to Mexico

Kennedy domestic policy

New Frontier - Space program, liberal immigration from Latin America, small help for civil rights

Johnson domestic policy

Great Society - war on poverty: tax cuts to stimulate economic growth; Improvements to medicare (old) and creation of Medicaid (poor); Aid for education. more urban renewal; Civil rights support!

Seward's Folly

In 1867, the US bought Alaska from Russia for about $7 million -- about 2 cents per acre. Many American thought it was foolish to buy land that was so far north.


1898, U.S. wanted _____ for business and so ________ sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

US Maine

ship that blew up mysteriously in the Havana harbor and started the Spanish American war and a huge Yellow Journalism era

Commodore George Dewey

completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898; was immediately promoted to admiral

Puerto Rico

ceded to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War

William Jennings Bryant

perennial presidential candidate (3x) Democrat secretary of state under Woodrow Wilson, was in scopes trial, wanted 16:1 silver ratio; opposed American imperialism

1899 Treaty of Paris

officially ended the Spanish-American War, 11 April
Spain agreed to acknowledge Cuban independence; ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S; sold Philippines to U.S. for $20 million

Platt Amendment

prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay

Panama Canal

cut across the isthmus of ______ by United States Army engineers; opened in 1915; greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America

Roosevelt Corollary

Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs; right to intervene wherever there was "chronic wrongdoing"


A policy of not taking sides, especially in a war or dispute


A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.


American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Archduke Ferdinand

heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI

Zimmerman telegram

March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany. In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.

Selective Service Act

This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.

Espionage Act

fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military; forbade of criticism of the government and military

Red Scare

period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US government

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

self determination

the freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live

New Nationalism

Teddy Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

Johnson Act (1921)

Limited the anual immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.

Federal Highway Act (1921)

Provided the basis for the federal highway program as it exists today


Sparked by the red scare, when two Iltalian immigrants were accused of the robbery and murder; they were convicted and sentenced to death. In spite of worldwide protest that the men had been convicted largely due to their anarchistic beliefs, they were executed

Scopes trial

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools

Marcus Garvey

African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.

Stock Market crash (1929)

Steep fall in the prices of stocks due to widespread financial panic; caused by stock brokers who called in the loans they had made to stock investors; caused stock prices to fall; many lost their entire life savings; many financial institutions went bankrupt.

Great Depression

the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.

Federal Reserve Board

an independent agency of the federal government established in 1913 to regulate the nation's banking and financial industry

sick industries

Textiles, Railroads, Shipping, Agricultural

Election of 1932

Herbert Hoover/republican ("prosperity around the corner") vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt/democrat (3 R's- "relief, recovery, reform)= Roosevelt

Agricultural Adjustment Act

Government paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of their products; part of the New Deal this agency; attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

New Deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented

Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)

reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks

Tennessee Valley Authority (1933)

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Huey Long

Louisiana Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families; was later assassinated

Kellog-Briand pact

1928 - agreement in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Dawes Plan

1924 - international agreement that loaned Germany 200 million in gold to pay a reduced reparation bill and gave Germany more time to meet its debt

Hawley-Smoot Act

1930 - brought the U.S. tariff to the highest protective level in history; steeply raises U.S. tariffs on imports. Foreign governments retaliate, which prevents free trade and lengthens the depression.

Good Neighbor Policy

Franklin D. Roosevelt pledge that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.

Lend-Lease Act

1941 - The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."

Atlantic Charter

1941 - declaration by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.

Tripartite Act

1940 - Axis defense treaty: The three nations (Italy, Germany, Japan) agreed that for the next ten years they would "stand by and co-operate with one another"

Pearl Harbor

1941 - United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II.


1945 - City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb; The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

Enola Gay

the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the first atomic bomb

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

Japanese internment

1942 - Roosevelt signed a document stating that all people of ________ ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in camps because of their fear for another attack

Bracero program

1941-47 - brought nearly 5 million Mexicans to the US to work on farms and ranches in the Southwest

Winston Churchill

British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II; planned many allied campaigns; predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

Joseph Stalin

Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist

Adolph Hitler

German dictator during WWII; responsible for executing millions of people.

Yalta Conference

1945 meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war

Potsdam Conference

1945 meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

National Woman Suffrage Association

(1869) group began to fight for a universal-suffrage amendment to the federal Constitution.

first-wave feminism

focused on women's legal rights, such as the right to vote

Margaret Sanger

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

second-wave feminism

seeking equal rights and opportunities for women in their economic activities, their personal lives, and politics; touched on every area of women's experience—including family, sexuality, and work

National Organization for Women (NOW)

national pressure group—a women's equivalent of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

proposed amendment to ensure equality of rights, regardless of sex

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1965)

helped women gain access to jobs in every corner of the U.S. economy; employers with long histories of discrimination were required to provide timetables for increasing the number of women in their workforces

Title IX of the Higher Education Act

prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program receiving federal funds and thereby forced all-male schools to open their doors to women and athletic programs to sponsor and finance female sports teams

Betty Friedan

American feminist best known for her book The Feminine Mystique (1963), which explored the causes of the frustrations of modern women in traditional roles.

Gloria Steinem

American feminist, political activist, and editor, an articulate advocate of the women's liberation movement during the late 20th century.

W.E.B. du Boise

Black leader, founding member of NAACP; known for criticizing Booker T. Washington

Booker T. Washington

Black leader who promoted economic independence and a slow transition for blacks into free society

Martin Luther King Jr.

Black leader, Baptist minister and civil rights leader. He opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights. (nonviolent)

Scottsboro Nine

Nine African americans convicted of assaulting two white women in a freight train in Alabama in 1931.


founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

Black Power Movement

African American movement that focused on gaining control of economic and political power to achieve equal rights by force in necessary

Stokely Carmichael

A leader of the Black Nationalist movement in 1966, he coined the phrase "Black Power". Broke off from the nonviolent movements.

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