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I) Technological Advances


Triangular Trade/Middle Passage

Middle passage of slave trade goes between Africa and South America. Triangular trade: ships from Caribbean bring sugar, tobacco, cotton to England; England sends rum, textiles, manufactured goods to west Africa, W. Africa sends slaves to Caribbean

Cottage Industry

Prior to 1800, things were made with the cottage industry. This is where a family goes from the raw material to the finished product to selling it. Example: sheep to selling shirt. Problem is demand is outstripping supply. The change that happens is the Industrial Revolution. Large factories replace cottage industry. Machinery is made of metal instead of wood.

Pig, Cast, Wrought Iron, Steel

Iron is an ore mined from the ground. After iron is melted, you get pig iron.

In the refining process, if you have 2-4.5% of carbon in the iron, then you have cast iron. Cast iron is great for things like skillets and fire protectors, but not good for buildings. Won't bend. Want to get rid of more carbon.

If you burn off carbon and get .2-2% of carbon, you get wrought iron. You can make more things with this. It's stronger and more flexible.

To get steel, you have to get .1% of carbon in iron.

Henry Bessemer (d. 1898)

Henry Bessemer allowed steel to be made faster. Creates bessemer process. Now we can make things on a big scale with steel.

II) Architectural Applications


Great Exhibition, 1851

Essentially world's first World's Fair. 6 million viewers came to this Exhibition. They showcase how good the quality is from things made of industrial fashion.

Crystal Palace

First building made of steel. In 1851. Built in only 4 months, used with large bars of steel. This was presented in the Great Exhibition. Crystal palace no longer exists.

Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901)

Queen Victoria opened the whole exhibition and said "the site was magical". Victoria sees industrialization as almost a religion.

Universal Exposition, 1889

The Universal Exposition was held in Paris in 1889. Wanted to create something in Paris to commemorate itself. Eiffel tower was built because of this. Meant to showcase how much progress France has made.

Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923)

Went to Paris at 18. Went to polytechnic school, got very poor grades. Became an architect, landed first big job designing bridge in Poland called the Douro River Bridge.

Douro River Bridge

Gustave Eiffel's fist big project.

Budapest Train Station

Built train station in Budapest. Very innovative in building it. Built skylights in the roof, very innovative too.

Statue of Liberty

Eiffel also builds iron interior of the Statue of Liberty. He becomes known as the "iron wizard". By end of 1880's, he was ready to make his mark on Paris. Very well known and famous.

III) Paris Transformed


Medieval character

Paris was a very Medieval city up until 1860. Very very crowded and dirty. Very narrow streets.

Napoleon III (r. 1848-1870)

Napoleon III) wants to change layout of Paris so he builds modern boulevards and new buildings that Paris is now famous for. Builds the Arc de Triomphe.

Champs Elysees


Georges Haussmann

Man responsible for actually building modern Paris was Georges Haussmann. Makes a uniformity to it. Believed parts should be available to all. Final thing added was the metro system.

IV) The Tower



Fair exhibits so many firsts. First gas car, first phone, and many more

Reactions and symbolism

People love the Industrial Revolution. Souvenirs Become popular for the first time. Many people were very critical of it though.


Impressionist painters were not invited to the fair. Realism was the craze. Photography was the new big thing too.

Sacre Coeur

Many people were opposed to the Industrial Revolution in the 1880's. There was a church being built at the same time called the Sacre Coeur. Built as a statement by conservatives to go against the change.

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