Sodium hydroxide. Copper (11) sulfate. Blue to purple.
Function of RNA?
Transfers genetic information from DNA to ribosomes.
What are the 2 stages of cell division?
Nuclear division. Cytokinesis.
Define T cell.
Type of WBC involved in the immune system which kills pathogens directly or activates B cells.
The administering of a vaccine containing antigens to give immunity.
2 polynucleotide strands coil together forming DNA double helix.
Primary imune response.
Immune response triggered when foreign antigen enters body for first time.
Single- celled organism with no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
A type of B cell that produces antibodies.
In nucleus and makes ribosomes.
Cell division where parent cell divides products in 2 genetically identical daughter cells.
Change of base sequence of DNA.
Antibody produced from single group of genetically Identical B cells.
The ability to respond quickly to an infection.
Humoral immune response.
Involves B cells, clonal cells and antibodies.
ATP structure .
Adenine. Ribose. 3 phosphate groups.
What can the inorganic phosphate released be used for?
Phoaphorylate other compounds making them more reactive.
Why is ATP better than glucose?
Hydrolysis is a single step reaction and is unstable so easily broken down.
What catalysis ATP to ADP?
What catalysis ADP to ATP?
What bond strengthens water?
Uses of water.
Metabolic reactions. Hydrolysis /condensation. High heat capacity. Buffers changes in temp. Large latent heat of vaporisation. Cooling effect with little loss of water. Strong cohesion between water molecules.
Where are phosphate ions used?
DNA and ATP.
Where are H+ ions used?
Where are sodium ions used?
Co-Transport of amino acids and glucose.
Where are iron ions used?
Oxygen transport in haemoglobin.
How much bigger the image is.
Difference between optical and electron microscopes.
Optical uses light and electron uses electrons to form image.
What does buffer do?
What does isotonic do?
Solution and cell has equal concentration.
What does Ice-cold do?
Reduce enzyme activity.
What are fungal cell wall made from?
What are bacterial cell wall made from?
What does vacuole do?
What is the name for the protein coat of a virus?
What do viruses have on their surface?
What do prokaryotic cells have?
Plaids. Flagellum. Slime capsule.
How are prokaryotic cells different to eukaryotic?
No membrane bound organelles. No nucleus. Smaller ribosomes. Murein cell wall.
Importance of mitosis.
Growth. Repair. Asexual reproduction.
What kind of responses are physical barrier and phagocytosis?
What are the slow responses?
Cell mediated and humoral.
Why can the immune system and lymphocytes distinguish between cells?
Different proteins have different tertiary structures.
Why does it take Time for pathogen control?
Lymphocytes need to build up.
Where do B lymphocytes mature and which immunity?
Bone marrow. Humoral immunity.
Where do T lymphocytes mature and which immunity?
Thymus gland. Cell - mediated immunity.
Which cells can present antigens?
Virus invaded, cancer, transplanted cells.
Similarities of T and B cells.
Provide immunity. Produced from stem cells. Types of WBC.
Differences of T and B cells.
Maturity and immunity.
Define monoclonal antibody.
Each clone produces specific antibody .
4 polypeptide chains. 2 heavy 2 Light.
How do antibodies prepare antigens for destruction?
Agglutination and phagocytosis.
A protein produced by B cells in response to the presence of a pathogen.