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Exam I

Microbiology [DNA, genes, ] ^*key concepts,terms,
STUDY
PLAY
in a DNA structure certain bases attract and bond, which ones?
a- t, c-g
Is DNA one stranded or two?
two
what are alleles?
they are a variation of a gene
what is a gene?
units responsible for traits [>units of Inheritence]
genotype
the genetic makeup of a person
ex. earlobes - homozygus, heterozygus, codom (recessive =attatched, dom. unattached)
phenotype
expression (+'s - indiv. portrait)
ex. express unattached, express attached
nucleus
contains genetic material [chromozomes, etc]
Chromozomes
come in pairs & carry genetic material [scrunched up DNA+protein]
how many pairs of chromozomes in a somatic cell?
23 pairs: first 22 are homologous[autosomes] the sencond sex chromozomes
meiosis
sex cell formation
sex cell formation
occurs in the testes and ovaries- these cells [haploid] have but one chromozome and don't until the sperm and egg come together
zygote
fetrilized egg
crossover
genetic material is exchanged between homologous cells = resulting in recombination a variation of the alleles on the XX or XY's
karyotype
photograph of a individuals chromozomes under microscope
MtDNA
mitochondrial DNA is seperate from the cell and the cells rnergy source performing 600 function/sec.
base pair rule
certain bases in a nucleotide attract and bond
nucleotide
1 phosphate P,1 sugar D, and 1 of 4 bases [A,T,C,G]
DNA replication step1
special enzymes break the bonds between the 2 strands /:. strands divide
DNA replication step 2
the seperation permits the exposed bases to attract unnattached nucleotides[free floating within the cell nucleus]
DNA replication step 3
the previous [parental] nucleotides serve as a template for the formation of the new strand [so the free floaters gotta match whatever phosphate,sugar,base combo was there first]
another name for DNA replication is?
mitosis!
Protein synthesis 1
DNA unzips, mRNA transcribes the code then peels away and travels to the ribosome
Protein synthesis 2
the ribosome translates the coded mRNA in triplets[ codons-groups of 3 bases that code for specific amino acids
Protein synthesis 3
the TRNA carries the amino acids matching the mRNA codons that are being translated.
Protein synthesis 3
The amino acids are linked together to form a strand. A protein.
RNA
single stranded, different sugar U, can travel outside nucleus1 phosphate, 1 sugar R, ! of 4 bases [U-A,C-G
protein
complex 3-D molecules- that can bond to other molecules- compsed of linear chains of amino acids
and how cool are amino acids?
these 20 the are the universal code for all LIFE on Earth -combined in different amounts a sequences to produes millions of proteins