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Microbiology [DNA, genes, ] ^*key concepts,terms,

in a DNA structure certain bases attract and bond, which ones?

a- t, c-g

Is DNA one stranded or two?


what are alleles?

they are a variation of a gene

what is a gene?

units responsible for traits [>units of Inheritence]


the genetic makeup of a person
ex. earlobes - homozygus, heterozygus, codom (recessive =attatched, dom. unattached)


expression (+'s - indiv. portrait)
ex. express unattached, express attached


contains genetic material [chromozomes, etc]


come in pairs & carry genetic material [scrunched up DNA+protein]

how many pairs of chromozomes in a somatic cell?

23 pairs: first 22 are homologous[autosomes] the sencond sex chromozomes


sex cell formation

sex cell formation

occurs in the testes and ovaries- these cells [haploid] have but one chromozome and don't until the sperm and egg come together


fetrilized egg


genetic material is exchanged between homologous cells = resulting in recombination a variation of the alleles on the XX or XY's


photograph of a individuals chromozomes under microscope


mitochondrial DNA is seperate from the cell and the cells rnergy source performing 600 function/sec.

base pair rule

certain bases in a nucleotide attract and bond


1 phosphate P,1 sugar D, and 1 of 4 bases [A,T,C,G]

DNA replication step1

special enzymes break the bonds between the 2 strands /:. strands divide

DNA replication step 2

the seperation permits the exposed bases to attract unnattached nucleotides[free floating within the cell nucleus]

DNA replication step 3

the previous [parental] nucleotides serve as a template for the formation of the new strand [so the free floaters gotta match whatever phosphate,sugar,base combo was there first]

another name for DNA replication is?


Protein synthesis 1

DNA unzips, mRNA transcribes the code then peels away and travels to the ribosome

Protein synthesis 2

the ribosome translates the coded mRNA in triplets[ codons-groups of 3 bases that code for specific amino acids

Protein synthesis 3

the TRNA carries the amino acids matching the mRNA codons that are being translated.

Protein synthesis 3

The amino acids are linked together to form a strand. A protein.


single stranded, different sugar U, can travel outside nucleus1 phosphate, 1 sugar R, ! of 4 bases [U-A,C-G


complex 3-D molecules- that can bond to other molecules- compsed of linear chains of amino acids

and how cool are amino acids?

these 20 the are the universal code for all LIFE on Earth -combined in different amounts a sequences to produes millions of proteins

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