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Terms in this set (134)
Fossils found in the lowest geographical strata are generally the most
The place Darwin visited on his trip around the world that had the greatest impact on his thinking was
the Galapagos Islands
According to Darwin, natural selection is based on the _____ found in populations.
The maintenance of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is encouraged
when there is no gene flow among populations
Fossils would include
skeletons, shells and seeds (all of the above)
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the term q2 refers to the frequency of
the homozygous recessive genotype in a population
Directional selection means that
The organisms on one extreme of the population have a better chance to survive than those on the other extreme
An insect that exhibits resistance to a pesticide
inherited genes that made it resistant to the pesticide
In the biological species concept of Ernst Mayr, what aspect of a population is critical to determining a species?
Complete reproductive isolation is evidence that what has occurred?
What is NOT an example of an isolating mechanism?
Isolating mechanisms that take effect before or during fertilization are termed
The primary reason for hybrid sterility is
that hybrids cannot produce viable gametes
"Seasonal," "daily," and "monthly" all describe isolation that can be termed
New alleles arise by
If the frequency of a recessive allele is 36 percent, the frequency of the dominant allele would be what percent?
In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the recessive homozygous genotype is 0.49. The percentage of the population that is heterozygous is
The HbS allele (sickle cell) occurs at a higher frequency in Africa than it does in the United States because
natural selection favors heterozygotes in Africa, but favors homozygous normal individuals in the United States.
In a certain bird species, clutch size (the number of eggs laid by a female in one breeding season) ranges from four to eight and the most frequent clutch size is six. This phenomenon is an example of
The large land mass that contained all the continents was called?
The wings of a bird and the wings of a butterfly are ?
The study of early life stages has revealed the conservative nature of the genes responsible for
Viral genome can be altered by
mutation & Gene exchanges
A Gram-positive bacillus is
Which of the viral replication pathways kill the host cell immediately?
Herpes and EBV have which replication pathway?
neither lysogenic or lytic
What is a pandemic?
It is when an outbreak affects many regions.
The bacteria chromosome is called?
What transformation can some bacteria make so they can withstand heating and freezing?
They can become an endospore.
Why are the Hepatitis vaccines categorized together?
They all infect the liver
Which virus infection has been shown to be prevented by passive immunity?
The first vaccine ever created by Edward Jenner was against which virus?
Which virus had a vaccine that was an example of a recombinant vaccine?
What is the vector for the Yellow Fever virus?
Can meningitis be caused by a bacteria and virus?
Why are some vaccines given together?
to decrease the number of needle sticks
What does the H stand for when describing the type of Influenza virus?
What virus causes both chicken pox and shingles?
Homologous structures among major groups of organisms may differ in _____.
size, shape & function
Individuals do not evolve, _____do?
The group plant has flowers then it is called a
The cuticle of a plant is primarily responsible for
retention of water
haploid plant that produces gametes
Which of the following is not part of the shoot system?
Perpetually young tissues where cells retain the ability to divide are
Increase in stem length occur at the
Cells that are the main water conducting cells of a plant are
tracheids and vessel members
Vascular bundles contain
xylem and phloem
Gaseous exchange occurs in plants through these structures in the epidermis.
Extensions of the root epidermis used to increase absorption are called?
Roots are involved in all of the following activities except
are groups of dividing cells, responsible for increases in the width of a stem or root & called cambium
Annual growth rings are formed in woody stems principally through the activities of the
Which of the following elements required by plants does NOT come directly from the soil?
Nodules found on the roots of leguminous plants are involved in supplying which element for the plant?
increase plant growth, are symbionts, & increase the surface area for aborption of water and minerals
The Casparian strip is associated with the
The water and minerals absorbed by the roots usually first enter the
Which part of the theory of water transport states taht hydrogen bonding allows water molecules to maintain a continuous fluid column as water is pulled from roots to leaves?
Water moves through a plant because of
transpirational pull, the cohesion of water molecules & the strength of hydrogen bonds holding water molecules together
The waxy covering of the leaf is the
The cells that surround stomata are
Movement of soluble organic material through plants is known as
Sugars are usually carried throughout the plant in which tissue?
The sink region in the pressure flow explanation of phloem transport could be
growing leaves, roots & fruits
Which of the following develop into seed?
The male part of a flower is the
The plant hormone that is gaseous is
The plant hormone that promotes dormancy in plants and seeds is
The plant hormone thought to be involved with tropism is
The aging of a plant is known as
What is the principle substance that causes phototropism in stems or leaves?
What is the process by which plant parts are shed in response to seasonal change or drought?
Which of the cell types are dead at maturity?
In phloem, organic compound flow through
What is the name of the cell that loads sugars into the sugar conducting vascular tube?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are
both macronutrients and required elements
Decomposing matter in soil is called
Meiosis in an ovule produces _____ megaspores.
Fruits are mature _______.
Double fertilization gives rise to
both zygote and endosperm
Blood flows most slowly through the
Which of the following makes up the greatest percentage of human plasma?
Which cellular component of blood initiates blood clots?
In humans, which cell does NOT have a nucleus when mature?
Red blood cells originate in the
The pulmonary circulation
leads to, through, and from the lungs
In the human systemic circuit, blood will pass through all but which of the following
liver, limbs, digestive organs, not the lungs
Which blood type is the universal donor?
Which blood type is the universal recipient?
Which of the following statements is true?
The sytemic circuit leaves the heart from the left ventricle.
Blood in arteries
always travels away from the heart
The aorta leaves the
The pulmonary artery carries blood away from the
Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the
The pacemaker is which of the following nodes?
sinoatrial (SA) node
The coronary vessels
supply and drain the heart muscle
Blood pressure is highest in the
In its travel through the human body, blood usually continues on from capillary to enter
Which vessels normally have valves along their length?
The sytem that reclaims fluid and proteins that have escaped from blood capillaries is the
Which of the following is the most phagocytic cell in humans?
All but which of the following are good barriers to invasion by microbes?
Which system invloves plasma proteins activated when they contact a bacterial cell?
Histamines are secreted by
Terms that describe the adaptive immune response include all of the following EXCEPT
Which cells are divided into two groups: T cells and B cells?
Which cells are held in reserve to be used for a rapid response to subsequent intruders of the same type?
Which cells produce and secrete antibodies that set up bacterial invaders for subsequent destruction by macrophages?
Antibodies are shaped like the letter
The antigen binds to the _____ region of an antibody.
Naive B cells become activated when they encounter
Which immunoglobulin is the mucosal antibody?
Which cells directly destroy cells infected by viruses?
cytotoxic T cells
The cell-mediated response
involves cytotoxic T cells
The tissue that lines internal surfaces of the body is
Adipose tissue cells are filled with
Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does not produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
The acid released in the stomach is
What hormone, secreted by the stomach, increases the secretion of acids and digestive enzymes?
The digestion of fats mostly occurs in the
The digestion of proteins begins in the
Ulcers are caused by the bacterium
In human lungs, gas exchange occurs at the
the thoracic cavity expands
Where does absorption take place?
_______ muscle tissues has a striated appearance and is under voluntary control.
Neurotransmitters are released by
Myelin around peripheral nerves is made by
What are the first channels to open to start an action potential?
Skeletal muscles are controlled by
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