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197 terms

Ch 11-14 Project Set

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blood
fluid connective tissue of cardiovascular system; contains blood cells (red & white) and plasma
5 functions of blood
1. Transport substances (O2, nutrients, etc)
2. Restrict fluid loss (ie, blood)
3. Defend from pathogens
4. Regulate pH and ions
5. Stabilize body temperature
blood pH
7.35 - 7.45;
or 7.40 ± 0.05
plasma
liquid portion of blood;
made of water (92%), proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and waste;
≈55% of blood
3 plasma proteins
fibrinogen, Albumin, and globulin;
made by the liver
albumin
most numerous plasma protein;
maintains osmotic pressure of blood;
"attracts" water to osmose back into blood stream from tissues
globulin
transport hydrophobic (water-frightened; ie, oily) molecules; immunoglobulins function in immunity and allergy
fibrinogen
plasma protein cleaved into fibrin by thrombin during blood coagulation;
fibrin
blood-clotting protein formed when thrombin cleaves fibrinogen during coagulation (clotting) process; last step of blood clotting
formed elements
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes (WBCs)
Platelets (aka thrombocytes, which are cell fragments not cells);
erythrocyte
red blood cell;
full of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen;
5,000,000 cells/mm3
99.9% of blood cells are RBCs;
formed in red bone marrow
hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying molecule found in erythrocytes;
made of heme (pigment) and globin (protein);
heme contains Iron (Fe2+), which turns red when bound to O2;
Hgb range = 12-18g/100cc
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment in bile;
breakdown product of hemoglobin from dead erythrocytes;
erythropoiesis
process of making red blood cells
hemopoiesis
process of making any blood cell;
aka hematopoiesis
leukocyte
white blood cell (WBC); defend body by:
1. Defend against pathogen invasion
2. Remove toxins and wastes
3. Attack abnormal cells
formed in red bone marrow or lymph tissue;
normal count: 5,000-9,000 cells/mm3
differential count
count of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in stained blood smear;
determines abnormailities or *changes in WBC populations, due to:
infections, inflammation, allergy, and cancer*
neutrophil
most abundant WBC;
phagocyte;
population increases exponentially in acute infection;
eosinophil
phagocyte WBC;
engulfs antibodies linked to antigens;
populations increase in allergic conditions
basophil
WBC which releases histamine and heparin;
aka mast cells, when in tissue;
populations increase in chronic inflammation & infection
heparin
anticoagulating protein, which slows clotting;
released in response to injury
histamine
vasodilating protein, released after injury or allergy;
increases blood vessel permeability, which leads to fluid accumulating in tissue (edema), compressing nerves (pain), warmth, and redness;
attracts lymphocytes
monocyte
largest phagocytic WBC;
aka macrophage
lymphocyte
1 of 3 types of WBC (B-/T-/NK-lymphocyte)providing specific immunity (B & T) and some innate immunity (NK);
smallest WBCs;
25% of total WBC population
B lymphocyte
differentiates in bone;
makes antibodies;
aka plasma cell
T lymphocyte
differentiates in thymus;
performs cell-mediated immunity
4 inflammation signs
swelling
pain
redness
heat
platelet
cell fragment involved in blood clotting;
aka thrombocyte;
forms platelet plug to temporarily plug tears in blood vessel;
250,000-500,000 platelets/mm3
agglutination
blood clumping or bacteria clumping, due to antibodies sticking to each other
vitamin K
essential nutrient involved in blood clotting process;
vitamin "Klot"
hematologist
specialist treating diseases and disorders of blood and associated tissues
blood type
identifies which cell-surface protein(s) are on RBCs;
4 main classes: A, B, O, Rh-factor
antigen
any substance (toxin, cell-surface protein) that stimulates production of antibodies;
anything body may recognize as foreign
antibody
protein released by B-lymphocytes in response to antigen; antibody sticks to antigen;
antibody signals phagocytic eosinophils
Rh-factor
cell-surface protein that may be recognized as an antigen, similar to A and B
crossmatching and typing
test for compatibility of blood transfusions
type O negative
universal blood donor; aka O-
RBCs have none of the main antigens (A, B, or Rh), so recipient should not create antibodies and reject the blood
type AB positive
universal blood receiver; aka AB+
RBCs have all major antigens, thus recipient does not recognize any additional antigens in any type of blood (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB-, AB+, O-, or O+)
hematocrit
percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood;
aka packed cell volume;
≈45%%* ± 8%
fractionation
separating whole blood into plasma & formed elements for clinical analysis using a centrifuge;
hemocytoblast
blood stem cell from which all other types of blood cell are descended.
"mother" of blood cells
average blood volume
adult: 5L
adult ♀: 4-5 L
adult ♂: 5-6 L
3 blood characteristics
1. Hot (38°C (100.4°F) is normal temperature
2. Thick (high viscosity)
3. Basic (Slightly alkaline pH [7.4 ± 0.05])
venipuncture
puncture of a vein to remove blood, inject a medication / dye, or start an intravenous infusion
red bone marrow
hemopoietic tissue that manufactures formed elements (all RBCs, many WBCs, platelets); located within spongy bone of all child and some adult bones
erythropoietin
hormone secreted by kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production;
secreted when low O2 (hypoxia), often due to disease or altitude;
aka erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone
aka EPO
hemostasis
cessation of bleeding;
3 phases:
vascular, platelet, coagulation
followed by platelet retraction of blood vessel & fibrinolysis
vascular phase
1st hemostasis step:
blood vessel contracts;
membrane becomes sticky & hormones released
platelet phase
2nd hemostasis step:
platelets adhere to vessel and
platelets aggregate together forming a platelet plug
coagulation phase
3rd hemostasis step:
blood clotting enzyme chain reaction, ending with fibrinogen converted into fibrin
clot retraction
after coagulation, platelets contract pulling torn blood vessel together
fibrinolysis
blood-clot dissolving;
tissue-plasminogen activator converts plasminogen → plasmin, which digests fibrin strands of clot
heart
four-chambered muscular organ, that pumps oxygen-poor blood to pulmonary circulation (lungs) and oxygen-rich blood to systemic circulation (body)
pulmonary circulation
portion of circulatory system that sends blood to, and receives blood from, the lungs
systemic circulation
portion of circulatory system that sends blood to, and receives blood from, the body
pericardium
double-layered serous membrane surrounding heart
visceral pericardium
serous membrane on the surface of heart muscle;
aka epicardium
parietal pericardium
tough, fibrous serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity, posterior to ribs and sternum
pericardial fluid
serous fluid between parietal & visceral pericardium; reduces friction when heart beats
epicardium
outer layer of heart tissue made of serous membrane;
aka visceral pericardium;
coronary blood vessels found here
myocardium
middle and largest layer of heart,
made of cardiac muscle;
septum
thick muscular wall separating blood from one side of heart from the other;
(eg, interatrial and interventricular)
endocardium
innermost heart layer;
includes the smooth endothelium
endothelium
innermost lining of blood vessels;
very smooth so blood can flow with minimal friction against vessel walls
right atrium
upper right chamber of heart;
receives de-O2 blood from body via inferior and superior vena cava;
pumps blood through tricuspid valve to right ventricle
right ventricle
lower right chamber of heart;
receives de-O2 blood from right atrium (through tricuspid valve);
pumps blood to lungs via pulmonary valve
left atrium
upper left chamber of heart;
receives O2 blood from lungs via pulmonary veins;
pumps blood through bicuspid/mitral valve to left ventricle
left ventricle
lower left chamber of heart; largest & thickest chamber;
receives O2 blood from left atrium (through bicuspid/mitral valve);
pumps blood to body via aortic valve
superior vena cava
drains blood from head, neck, arms & chest into top of right atrium
inferior vena cava
drains blood from abdominopelvic regions, back and legs into bottom of right atrium
tricuspid valve
one-way valve between right atrium & right ventricle;
aka right atrioventricular valve (right AV valve)
bicuspid valve
one-way valve between left atrium & left ventricle;
aka mitral valve
aka left atrioventricular valve (left AV valve)
atrioventricular valve
one-way valve between atrium and ventricle; prevent blood backflow;
AV valves: tricuspid [R] & bicuspid (mitral) [L]
pulmonary valve
one-way valve between right ventricle & pulmonary trunk;
aka pulmonic valve;
1 of 2 "semilunar" valves
aortic valve
one-way valve between left ventricle & aorta;
atrium
1 of 2 thin-walled upper chambers of the heart;
receive blood into heart & pumps it through AV valves into ventricles
ventricle
1 of 2 thick-walled lower chambers of the heart;
receive blood from atria & pumps it out of heart to body or lungs
heart blood flow
IVC/SVC→RA→tricuspid→RV→pulmonary valve →p. trunk→p. arteries→LUNGS→p. veins→LA→bicuspid→LV→aortic valve→aorta→BODY
semilunar valve
one-way valve between ventricle and vessel; prevent blood backflow;
pulmonary [R] & aortic [L]
chordae tendinae
tendon-like, fibrous strands connecting
AV valves of the heart with papillary muscles in ventricles, holding valves in place
cardiac cycle
complete cycle from start of one heartbeat to the next;
includes atrial systole & diastole and then ventricular systole & diastole
systole
contraction of myocardium;
higher pressure on blood
diastole
relaxation of myocardium;
lower blood pressure
heart sounds
created by closure of heart valves:
"LUBB-dub"
AV valves slam first, causing loud sound;
semilunars slam second, making quieter heart sound
murmur
abnormal heart sound
cardiac conduction system
network of myocardial cells specialized to generate & conduct electrical signals through the heart;
upon elecetrical signal, muscle cells contract
conduction pathway
SA node→AV node→AV bundle→bundle branches→cardiac fibers
sinoatrial node
"pacemaker" node of conduction system in upper RA;
initates spreading electrical signals (approx 60-72 per min)
aka SA node
atrioventricular node
second node of conduction system between atria & ventricles; spreads electrical signal to AV bundle;
aka AV node
atrioventricular bundle
specialized muscle fibers connecting AV node to bundle branches, transmitting impulses between them;
aka bundle of His
bundle branches
electrical signal travels from AV bundle travel through these branches then to cardiac fibers throughout ventricles
Purkinje fibers
fibers from bundle branches that spread throughout ventricles carry electrical impulses, causing them to contract
electrocardiogram
record of electrical activity of heart;
if abnormal, may indicate heart disease;
aka ECG or EKG
P wave
first, small wave on an EKG;
indicative of electrical activity in atria (atrial systole)
QRS complex
second, large wave on an EKG (spike down, up, & down);
indicative of depolarizing electrical activity in ventricles (ventricular systole & DEpolarization)
T wave
third, small wave on an EKG;
indicative of electrical activity in ventricles subsiding;
(ventricular diastole or REpolarizing )
arrythmia
irregular heart beat
bradycardia
abnormally slow heart rate
tachycardia
abnormally fast heart rate
ischemia
abdormal blood condition of deficient oxygen
mediastinum
central region of thoracic cavity, containing aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, and thymus
apex
pointed part of an organ;
ex heart or lung
cadiac output
amount of blood heart pumps in 1 minute;
average = 5000 mL/min;
equals heart rate multipled by stroke volume;
CO = HR x SV
heart rate
number of heart beats per minute;
average = 72 beats/min
stroke volume
amount of blood ejected by heart per conctraction;
average = 70 mL/beat
vascular system
consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries, through which blood circulates
heart blood flow
IVC/SVC→RA→tricuspid→RV→pulmonary valve →p. trunk→p. arteries→LUNGS→p. veins→LA→bicuspid→LV→aortic valve→aorta→BODY
lumen
cavity or passage in a tubular organ
(ie, through which blood flows)
artery
smaller, thick-walled vessels carrying high-pressure blood AWAY from heart;
all arteries carry O2-blood (red), except pulmonary artery
arteriole
small branch off an artery
capillary
microscopic vessels connecting arterioles to venules;
where material exchange occurs (eg, gas, nutrients) via diffusion, osmosis, & filtration;
often only 1-cell thick
venule
small branches into a vein
vein
larger, thin-walled vessels carrying low-pressure blood IN to heart;
1-way valves & skeletal muscles help return blood to heart;
all veins carry de-O2-blood (blue), except pulmonary vein
tunica adventitia
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica externa
tunica externa
outer layer of blood vessel;
fibrous connective tissue;
aka tunica adventitia
tunica media
middle layer of blood vessel;
smooth muscle tissue;
thicker in arteries than veins
tunica intima
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica interna
tunica interna
inner layer of blood vessel;
smooth endothelium and underlying connective tissue;
aka tunica intima
endothelium
smooth, innermost lining of blood vessels
cardiopulmonary circulation
heart pumps de-O2 blood to lungs & receives O2 blood from lungs;
RV→pulm. valve.→pulm. trunk→pulm arteries→LUNGS→pulm. veins→LA
systemic circulation
heart pumps O2 (oxihemoglobin), nutrients, water, hormones & wastes to and from all organ systems;
LA→aortic valve→aorta→BODY→IVC/SVC→RA
aorta
largest artery in body;
attached to left ventricle;
parts: ascending, arch, descending (thoracic and abdominal)
coronary artery
1 of 2 arteries, which branch off base of ascending aorta;
provde O2-rich blood to myocardium
pulmonary trunk
artery carrying blood from right ventricle;
branches into L&R pulmonary arteries
brachiocephalic artery
first artery branching off aortic arch;
further divides into right common carotid and right subclavian artery
common carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off either brachiocephalic (R) or artic arch (L);
provide blood to entire head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
internal carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to brain
external carotid artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R), which
branch off common carotid arteries;
provide blood to face, head, & neck
right subclavian artery
branched off of the brachiocephalic;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
vertebral artery
1 of 2 arteries that branch off subclavian arteries, then course up vertebrae into brain
left common carotid artery
second branch off aortic arch;
provides blood to neck & head;
further divides into internal and external carotid arteries
left subclavian artery
third branch off aortic arch;
courses beneath clavicle towards armpit to become axillary artery;
branches off a vertebral artery (to brain)
lower thoracic aorta
superior part of descending aorta, which supplies blood to chest organs
(eg, lungs, diaphragm, esophagus, chest muscles)
abdominal aorta
inferior part of descending aorta (beneath diphragm), which supplies blood to abdominal organs;
branches into L & R common iliac arteries
common iliac artery
1 of 2 arteries (L & R) that branch off the end of descending aorta; course into pelvis, then branches into internal and external iliac arteries
vasoconstriction
blood vessel tightening, which decreases diameter, or size of lumen;
also increases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media contracts
vasodilation
blood vessel relaxes, which increases lumen size;
also decreases blood pressure
smooth muscle in tunica media relaxes;
aka vasodilatation
jugular vein
one of the veins that collect blood from head: brain (L&R internal), face (L&R external), and chin (anterior);
all flow into the brachiocephalic veins, which connect to SVC
great saphenous vein
longest vein in body;
drains blood from foot, leg, and thigh;
joins with femoral vein
coronary sinus
vein that returns de-O2 blood from heart to RA
hepatic portal circulation
liver blood vessels that connect two capillary beds: arteries→caps→portal vein→caps
fetal circulation
special vessels and circulation present in fetus;
includes de-O2 blood in umbilical arteries coursing to placenta, and O2 nutrient-rich blood via umbilical veins
placenta
vascular uterine structure conected to fetus via umbilical cord;
providing O2 and nutrients to fetus and removes wastes from fetus
blood flow
affected by:
1. blood pressure differences
2. friction (with vessel & cells)
3. blood viscosity (thickness)
4. length and diameter of blood vessels
systolic pressure
higher arterial pressure caused by ventricular contraction;
top number in blood pressure reading
pulse pressure
difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure;
Pulse = (systolic) - (diastolic)
diastolic pressure
lower arterial pressure during ventricular relaxation;
bottom number in blood pressure reading
resistance
any mechanical force that slows or opposes motion; resistance opposes pressure;
smaller blood vessels have higher resistance;
larger blood vessels have lower resistance
pressure
force pushing on an area or surface;
in blood, pressure must overcome resistance for blod to flow (circulate)
pulse point
place where artery may be compressed against bone with fingertips to feel pulse;
big 3: brachial, radial, external carotid
median cubital vein
vein between the brachial and antebrachial regions (anterior to cubitus, or elbow);
often chosen for venipuncture along with nearby basalic & cephalic veins
dural sinuses
large dural gaps that drain venous blood from brain into internal jugular v.
brachiocephalic vein
veins formed by union of internal jugular and subclavian veins;
brachiocephalic veins fuse into superior vena cava
blood aging
3 changes:
1. less hematocrit
2. blood clots (thrombus)
3. blood pooling in legs
heart aging
5 changes:
*1. less cardiac output
2. atherosclerosis (hardening)
3. conduction system dysfunction*
4. damaged muscle replaced by scar
5. reduced cardiac skeleton elasticity
vessel aging
3 changes:
1. thrombi (clots)
2. less elastic arteries (possible aneurysm)
3. calcium deposits (hardening)
immune system function
1. produce lymphocytes, which provide immunity;
2. return lymph [interstitial fluid, or serum] and nutrients [eg, fat, electrolytes, etc.] to blood;
3. resist infection, or invasion of pathogens
4. remove and destroy cancerous cells and toxins
pathogen
microscopic organsims that cause disease;
eg, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites,
immunity
ability to resist infection and disease
lymph
watery fluid with leukocytes in lymphatic vessels;
♪ serum-like fluid originally ejected from capillaries, bathed over cells as interstitial fluid, and seeped into lymphatics, becoming lymph. Same Fluid, 3 places♪
interstitial fluid
watery fluid between body cells;
blood serum ejected from capillaries becomes interstitial fluid
lymphatic vessels
vessels that carry lymph under low-pressure;
similar to veins: thin wall, large lumen, valves;
carry lymph from tissue to lymph nodes, then return to blood;
aka lymphatics,
right lymphatic duct
collects lymph from upper right quadrant of body; empties into right subclavian vein
thoracic duct
collects lymph from remaining 3/4 of body: upper left quadrant and entire lower portion of body;
empties into the left subclavian vein;
aka left lymphatic duct,
lymph node
encapsulated lymphatic organ located along lymph vessel;
filter lymph for pathogens and cancer;
lymphocytes may divide here [mitosis] causing swelling and firming;
3 superficial lymph nodes
cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes;
palpated to assist in diagnosis
tonsils
3 pairs of non-encapsulated lymphatic tissue found in oral cavity;
palatine, adenoids, lingual;
"front-line" protection against pathogens entering body;
palatine tonsils
pair of non-encapsulated lymphatic tissue found on both lateral sides of soft palate [posterior roof of mouth]
pharyngeal tonsils
pair of non-encapsulated lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx;
aka adenoids
lingual tonsils
pair of non-encapsulated lymphatic tissue found on posterior aspect of tongue;
requires a tongue depressor to view clearly
spleen
largest lymphatic organ found in LUQ of abdomen;
filters old RBCs, and produces lymphocytes/monocytes: hence, it's pink;
in fetus, also produces RBCs
thymus
lymphatic organ superior to heart [looks like hat on heart];
T-lymphocytes mature here
Peyer's patches
patches of lymphatic tissue in the ileum of small intestine; protect body from ingested pathogens
natural immunity
immunity not specific to particular disease, will block or attack any pathogen; cannot distinguish one attack from another;
eg, physical barriers (skin, mucus tears), fever, phagocytes, inflammation,
aka innate immunity,
acquired immunity
immunity to a disease that is not innate but has been acquired during life;
formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to antigen;
can be active or passive AND naturally-acquired or induced
passive immunity
receiving antibodies made by another organism;
eg, from mother or another animal for antivenom
active immunity
organism actively makes its own antibodies;
eg, after illness or vaccination
naturally acquired active immunity
organism makes its own antibodies after naturally falling ill
induced active immunity
organism makes its own antibodies after receiving a vaccination or inoculation
naturally acquired passive immunity
organism receives antibodies made by its mother, either in the womb through placenta, or through mother's milk
induced passive immunity
receiving antibodies made by another animal, as in antivenom;
usually made in sheep, horse, or goat
immunization
increasing resistance to infection by exposing body to inactivated pathogen and inducing active immunity
autoimmune disorder
class of diseases in which the immune system targets normal body tissues and organs,
eg Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus
allergy
exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to an allergen;
aka hypersensitvity
allergen
any antigen that may cause allergic response to occur; eg pollen, ant-bite venom
anaphylaxis
life-threatening allergic reaction; symptoms include:
1. bronchoconstriction [causes difficulty breathing],
2. vasodilation [causes hives, decreased blood pressure, generalized edema];
may lead to circulatory collapse [of blood vessels];
lymphocyte
1 of 3 types of WBC (B-/T-/NK-lymphocyte)providing specific immunity (B & T) and some innate immunity (NK);
smallest WBCs;
25% of total WBC population
B lymphocyte
differentiates in bone;
makes antibodies performing antibody-mediated immunity;
aka plasma cell
T lymphocyte
differentiates in thymus;
performs cell-mediated immunity
NK cell
type of lymphocyte performing a nonsppecific immunity called immunological surveillance;
kills viuses, other pathogens, and canerous cells
antigen
any substance (toxin, cell-surface protein) that stimulates production of antibodies;
"anything body may see as foreign"
antibody
immunoglobulin protein released by B-lymphocytes in response to antigen;
antibody sticks to antigen;
antibody signals phagocytic eosinophils
immunoglobulin
class of proteins produced by B-lymphocytes, which function as antibodies;
5 types:
IgG most common
IgM "prototype" antibody
nonspecific defense
block or attack any potential pathogen;
cannot distinguish one attack from another, so acts characteristically regardless
7 nonspecific defenses
Physical barriers
Inflammation
Fever
Phagocytes
Immunological surveillance
Complement
Interferons
inflammation
body tissue response to injury or irritation;
4 signs:
*swelling
pain
redness
heat*
blood borne infections
blood-borne infections (ie HIV and Hepatitis C) require intimate contact with blood or other body fluids;
casual contact with hands, food, or sneezes cannot transmit these diseases