Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
US Presidents & Vocabulary
Terms in this set (99)
"Era of Good Feelings"
period starting in 1815 that marked a sense of national purpose and unity in the American political sphere. This era saw the fall of the Federalist party and its dispute with the Democratic-Republican party.
a meeting of representatives from the northern seven of the thirteen British North American colonies. Representatives met to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French. Delegates did not have the goal of creating an American nation; rather, they were colonists with the more limited mission of pursuing a treaty with the Mohawk and other major Iroquois tribes.
Alien and Sedition Acts
4 laws passed in 1798 to prevent perceived anarchy stemming from French sympathizers after the French Revolution. Repealed by Thomas Jefferson . These laws included new powers to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote.
7th President of the US, strengthened the power of the presidency, declared during the Nullification Crisis that states could not nullify federal laws.
refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. A book titled "The Anti-Federalist Papers" is a detailed explanation of American Anti-Federalist thought.
Articles of Confederation
First constitution of the US, drafted by the Continental Congress in 1776. Provided Continental Congress ability to direct the war of independence.
Atlantic slave trade
known as triangular trade, trade of goods between New and Old World
Armed rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676. William Berkeley, the governor of Virginia, had failed to address the grievances of the colony's frontier. 1000 Virginians chased Berkeley out of Jamestown and torched it. Berkeley was recalled to England afterwards.
Bank of the United States
A central bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. Establishment of the Bank was championed by Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury.
Battle of Breed's Hill
June 17. British drove the Americans from their trenches atop Breed's Hill in Charlestown. British greatest loss of the entire war: over 800 wounded and 228 killed. The Americans were forced to leave their position but lost less than half that number.
Battle of New Orleans
took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
Battle of Princeton
A few days after Trenton, Washington attacked Princeton. Gained command of the field and brought up American spirits with the two victories.
Battle of Saratoga
October 17, 1777. Burgoyne was surrounded near here and surrendered his entire force of more than 6,000 men after several skirmishes with an American army commanded by General Horatio Gates.
Battle of Trenton
December 26, while the Germans were still recuperating from celebrating Christmas, Washington crossed the Delaware River at night to attack the Hessian camp at this location early on the morning. Patriots captured more than 900 Hessians and killed another 30; only 3 Americans were wounded.
Battle of Yorktown
a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. The surrender by Cornwallis and the capture of both him and his army prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict.
Bill of Rights
1st 10 bills of the Constitution that protect the rights of liberty and property.
It is an economic cycle that is characterized by alternating periods of economic growth and contraction. When booms are occuring the economy will increase in its production and GDP. During busts an economy will see a fall in production and an increase in unemployment.
March 5, 1770. There were high tensions between the American colonists and the British. In the afternoon, a crowd of Bostonians with snowballs gathered around a small group of British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs House. The soldiers became enraged after one of them had been hit, and they fired into the crowd, even though they were under orders not to fire. Five colonists were shot and killed.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773. A group of Massachusetts Patriots, protesting the monopoly on American tea importation recently granted by Parliament to the East India Company, seized 342 chests of tea in a midnight raid on three tea ships and threw them into the harbor.
A theory of interpretation of the Constitution that holds the spirit of the times, the values of the justices, and the needs of the nation may legitimately influence the decisions of a court, particularly the Supreme Court/Judicial activism.
Checks and balances
The American Constitutional system includes a notion known as the Separation of Powers. In this system, several branches of government are created and power is shared. The powers of one branch can also be challenged by another branch.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
a United States Supreme Court case. The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction against laws passed by the state of Georgia depriving them of rights within its boundaries, but the Supreme Court did not hear the case on its merits. It ruled that it had no original jurisdiction in the matter, as the Cherokee was a dependent nation, with a relationship to the United States like that of a ward to its guardian.
Also known as the Restraining Acts in England introduced in 1774 by Lord North government who acted with the direct encouragement of George III. The voices of Lord Chatham and Edmund Burke were raised in Parliament because they feared that the stern measures were charting a course no one really wanted to follow. The purpose was to restore order in Massachusetts, following the Boston Tea Party.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
January 1776 By Thomas Paine, sold thousands of copies. Challenged American assumptions about gov. and the colonies relationship with Brit. Rejected the notion that only a balance of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy could preserve freedom. Advocated the establishment of a republic and a gov. by the ppl with no king or nobility. Insisted Britain exploited the colonies unmercifully. American strength once freed from Euro. Control. Blamed George III for the colonies' problems and urged Americans to declare their independence.
1787 the state house in Philadelphia made the most enduring written Constitution ever created. For four months, 55 delegates from the several states met to frame the Constitution for a federal republic that would last. Gordon Lloyd organized the convention into four parts.
Declaration of Independence
-June 28, 1776. Adopted- July 4, 1776. Concentrated on George III who was seen as a villain. The document accused the king of attempting to destroy representative government in the colonies and of oppressing Americans through the unjustified use of excessive force-
March 18, 1766. An act to better the securing of the dependency of his Majesty's dominions in America upon the crown and parliament of Great Britain.
Doctrine of nullification
The establishment of a national identity by Andrew Jackson. Allows a state to invalidate/void for its own territory, any federal law deemed unconstitutional by that state. Supporters viewed it as a major political tool against tyranny by the central government. The opponents saw it as threatening to the stability of the country.
Doctrine of predestination
God's people are predestined to live a holy life like the life of Jesus so that God may glorify them as he has glorified Jesus Christ in heaven. It is ungodly and absurd.
Election of 1800
Between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Federalists attacked Jefferson as an unchristian deist whose sympathy for the French Revolution would bring similar bloodshed and chaos. Democratic Republicans denounced the strong centralization of federal power under Adams, Republicans objected to the expansion of the us army and navy. Thomas Jefferson won.
Institution that officially elects the President and Vice President of the US every four years. President and Vice President are not elected directly by voters, they are also elected by electors, who are chosen by popular vote on a state by state basis.
Invented the Cotton Gin, one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American social activist, abolitionist and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.
A philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of reason to scrutinize previously accepted doctrines and traditions and that brought about many humanitarian reforms.
In New York that runs about 363 miles from Albany. New York, on the Hudson River in Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
First American political party, from the early 1790s to 1816, the era of the First Party System, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. Controlled the federal government until 1801. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. US only Federalist President was John Adams. Federalist policies called for a national bank, tariffs and good relations with Britain expressed in the Jay Treaty 1794.
First Great Awakening
Christian revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, and especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. Brought Christianity to African slaves and was a monumental event in New England that challenged established authority.
France and America join forces in the Revolution seeking revenge from the Seven Years War. France covertly supplied the revolutionaries with military necessities. Signed two treaties in 1778, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce: France recognized America's independence, establishing trade ties with it and the Treaty of Alliance: France and America promised that if France declared war on Britain that neither side would negotiate peace without consulting the other.
American social reformer, orator, writer and statesmen. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing.
Also known as the Fugitives From Labor Clause. It is the provision in Article Four of the US Constitution Section 2 Clause 3 that required slaves who escaped to another state to be returned to the owner in the state from which they escaped.
known as George Whitfield, an English Anglican preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain, especially in the British North American colonies. English Anglican preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain. He was one of the founders of Methodism and of the evangelical movement generally; perhaps the best-known preacher in Britain and America in the 18th century, and because he traveled through all of the American colonies and drew great crowds and media coverage, he was one of the most widely recognized public figures in colonial America
Gibbons v. Ogden
Landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the US held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US constitution. Case argued that some of America's most admired and capable attorneys at the time.
legal grant of land to settlers. Headrights are most notable for their role in the expansion of the thirteen British colonies in North America
Homestead Act of 1862
They were several US federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a 'homestead', at little or no cost.
An American education reformist. As a politician he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827-1833. Massachusetts Senate from 1834-1837. In 1848 after serving as the Secretary of Massachusetts State Board of Education, he was elected to the US House of Representatives. Brother-in-law to author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
House of Burgesses
First assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America. Established by the Virginia Comp. who also created the body as part of an effort to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America and to make conditions in the colony more agreeable for its current inhabitants.
A form of debt bondage, established in the early years of the American colonies and elsewhere.
Jacksonian Democracy is the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man typified by American politician Andrew Jackson.
An American statesman and political theorist, the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) and a Founding Father. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights. Served two terms in the White House. The first White House burned down when he was in office.
On May 14, 1607, a group of roughly 100 members of a joint venture called the Virginia Company founded the first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River. Famine, disease and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years brought Jamestown to the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export.
The fourth Chief Justice of the United States (1801-1835) whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches.
A wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
a Christian preacher and theologian. Edwards is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian, and one of America's greatest intellectuals.
the idea, fundamental to the US system of government, that the actions of the executive and legislative branches of government are subject to review and possible invalidation by the judicial branch. Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to take an active role in ensuring that the other branches of government abide by the constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1789
a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary.
Lexington and Concord
April 19, British found a group of Patriots outside Lexington. Volleys fired, 8 Americans killed 10 wounded. Concord, groups of men from nearby towns joined Concord residents. Gunfire exchanged at the North Bridge, British: 3 killed, 9 wounded. End of day 272 casualties (70 deaths) - British, 93 casualties - Patriots. Further damage to British was prevented by arrival of reinforcements and American lack of coordination.
a concept whereby a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited
1803, the United States purchased approximately 828,000,000 square miles of territory from France. The Louisiana Territory stretched from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west and from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north (15 states eventually created from the land deal).
Marbury v. Madison
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government.
Massachusetts Bay Co.
Massachusetts Bay Company, English chartered company that established the Massachusetts Bay colony in New England. Organized (1628) as the New England Company, and further expanded to the cape.
mechanical reaper, a machine that harvests crops (mainly grain), that revolutionized farming
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland enacted a written law imposing a tax on all banks operating in Maryland not chartered by the state. The law provided that all such banks were prohibited from issuing bank notes except upon stamped paper issued by the state. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, issued bank notes without complying with the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute. The case was ruled in favor of McCulloch because the Necessary and Proper Clause of the United States Constitution stated that the Federal Government was permitted to operate banks within individual states without paying taxes. The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government.
Economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade. Mercantilism dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from the 16th to late-18th centuries. Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion. Mercantilist theory varied in sophistication from one writer to another and evolved over time. Favours for powerful interests were often defended with mercantilist reasoning.
in the days of the African slave trade to the New World, the middle part of the slave's journey the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean.
1820, involved the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within Missouri, to balance the number of "slave states" and "free states"
December 2, 1823. Stated that the United States would protect the Western Hemisphere from Europeans and warned the Europeans not to interfere with its affairs.
New Jersey Plan
plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention,providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state.
adopted July 13, 1787, by the Second Continental Congress, chartered a government for the Northwest Territory, provided a method for admitting new states to the Union from the territory, and listed a bill of rights guaranteed in the territory.
Proclamation of 1763
October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War, in which it forbade settlers from settling past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.
Robert Fulton did not invent the steamboat, as is commonly believed, he was instrumental in making steamboat travel a reality; built and tested first successful submarine
Second Bank of the United States
Nation's bank during its 20-year charter from February 1817 to January 1836. The central bank handled all fiscal transactions for the US Government, and was accountable to Congress and the US Treasury. The bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans. In its time, the institution was the largest monied corporation in the world.
Second Great Awakening
A religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals.
Seneca Falls Declaration
Started the women's rights movement. It listed the grievances the women had with the men including that they did not have the right to vote, or own property, as well as the unjust divorce laws that were set in place. Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women and adopted eleven resolutions.
Separation of powers
originated in the writings of Montesquieu where he urged for a constitutional government with three separate branches of government. Each of the three branches would have defined powers to check the powers of the other branches.
Seven Years War
fought between England and France, 1756-1763; it started in 1754, over control of the Ohio River Valley; France's withdrawal from N. America. Taxing policy -> American Revolution. America calls it the French and Indian War.
Sexual division of labor
the delegation of different tasks between males and females.
August 29, 1786. A rebellion by former veterans who were farmers in debt in western Massachusetts area. Other causes of this rebellion were high taxes. Named after Daniel Shays, one of the leaders. A militia put up with the protesters. Thomas Jefferson agreed with this rebellion, while others thought it went too far. The rebellion spread to other states as well.
It was part of the constitution that stated that the slave trade was no longer a legal practice. In other words, it outlawed the slave trade, but did not outlaw slavery as a whole. As a result, people started to import tons of slaves before the clause came into effect.
Old world diseases would quickly devastate the Native Americans
practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system
(of 1765) imposed tax on all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all printed material.
Stamp Act Congress
meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765 in New York City; first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation
largest rebellion mounted by slaves against slave owners in colonial America
The act of following judicial interpretation, which means following the rules without making your own or having the Congress making up its own.
Susan B. Anthony
founded the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), an organization dedicated to gaining women's suffrage, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
1773. Imposed on the American colonists by the greatly indebted British government leading up to the American Revolution. The main reason for the Tea Act was to rescue the faltering East India Company from bankruptcy by lowering the tea tax it paid to the British government and, thus, granting it a de facto monopoly on the American tea trade.
(Mainly women)Worked for legislation to moderate the use of intoxicating drink despite their inability to vote. Linked drinking to poverty, adultery, social crime and domestic violence. (Mainly about drinking)
1787; three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
(JAMESTOWN) In the 19th century young plants came under increasing attack from certain types of flea beetles, destroyed half the US tobacco crops in 1876.
Trail of Tears
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.
Virginia & Kentucky resolutions
1798-99. Thought Alien and Sedition Acts (#3) was unconstitutional. Argue for states' rights and following the constitution. Virginia-Thomas Jefferson; Kentucky-James Madison (#51).
April 10, 1606. A pair of English joint-stock companies set out to establish settlements on N. America by James I. Virginia Company of London/Virginia Company of Plymouth. They had the same charters but overlapping territories, so they stayed 100 miles away from each other.
The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice because it called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that state's share of the u.s. population.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier (prevented US from trading with France). Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Washington's Farewell Address
a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values. (stressed maintaining commercial but not political ties to other nations; stressed not entering permanent alliances; America's uniqueness depended on being independent action on foreign affairs).
William Lloyd Garrison
prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) A case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
You might also like...
AP US History Chapter 7 - 8
US History 1301 Unit 2 (FULL SET)
Apush unit 2
Other sets by this creator
UNIT 11 VOCAB
Other Quizlet sets
History Test Battles
Dual credit Test 2
US History Revolutionary War Battles