Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 21 On Fungi
Terms in this set (40)
What are Fungi?
Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls that are made of chitin. All Fungi are multicellular except for yeasts.
What is Chitin?
Chitin is a complex carbohydrate that is also found in the external skeletons of insects.
What are Absorbtive Heterotrophs?
Absorbtive heterotrophs are organisms that digest food outside of their bodies and then absorb it into their bodies.
What are Fungi Made up of?
Fungi are composed of thin filaments called hyphae.
When is a Fungus Septate?
A Fungus is septate when cross walls divide the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei.
When is a Fungus Coenocytic?
A fungus is coenocytic when it lacks cross walls and contain many nuclei.
What is a Mycelium?
A mycelium is many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass.
What is a Fruiting Body?
A fruiting body is a reproductive structure growing from the mycelium in the soil beneath it.
What is a Fairy Ring?
A fairy ring is the result of mycelia depleting the nutrients in the soil near the center of the mycelium over time, causing new mushrooms to sprout only at the edges of the mycelium.
How do Fungi Reproduce?
Fungi are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually.
What is a sporangiophore and a sporangia?
A sporangiophore is a specialized hyphae that contain sporangia, structures that produce spores.
What are the two ways that spores can be spread?
Spores are either spread by the wind or by animals..
How are Fungi Classified?
Fungi are classified according to their structure and method of reproduction.
Name th Four Main Groups of Fungi and their Phylum Names.
Zygomycetes/Common Mold = Phylum Zygomycota
Ascomycetes/Sac Fungi = Phylum Ascomycota
Club Fungi = Phylum Basidiomycota
Imperfect Fungi = Phylum Deuteromycota
What is a Zygospore?
A zygospore is a resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of a mold's life cycle.
What are the three functions of a Rhizoid?
A rhizoid is a rootlike hyphae that (1)penetrates the surface of bread, (2)anchors the fungus to the bread, (3)and releases the digestive enzymes and absorbs the digested material.
What is a Stolon?
A stolon is a stemlike hyphae that runs along the surface of the bread.
What is an ascus?
An ascus is a reproductive structure that contains spores.
What is a conidia?
Conidia are tiny spores that form during asexual reproduction at the tips of conidiophores.
What occurs in the sexual reproduction of ascomycetes?
Hyphae of opposite mating types come together to form a fruiting body; the ascus then forms within the fruiting body. Within the ascus, two nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote, which then divides by meiosis to produce four haploid cells. Mitosis turns the four cells into eight ascospores.
What are Yeasts?
Yeasts are unicellular fungi that reproduce asexually by budding and sexually by producing asci. They obtain energy by anaerobic alcoholic fermentation.
What is a Basidium?
A basidium is a specialized spore-bearing structure that resembles a club and are found on the gills of a mushroom.
Explain the Life Cycle of a Club Fungi.
A basidiospore germinates to produce a haploid mycelium; this and a mycelium of a different mating type fuse to produce a secondary mycelium. When the right conditions are present, a mushroom pushs above the ground. When the mushroom cap opens, it exposes hundreds of tiny gills that are lined with basidia. The two nuclei in each basidium fuse to form a diploid zygote cell, which then undergoes meiosis, forming clusters of haploid basidiospores.
Why can mushroom expand rapidly overnight?
The cells enlarge by rapidly taking in water instead of dividing.
Why should you never pick wild mushrooms?
Their are many species of poisonous mushrooms that look almost identical to edible mushrooms and eating one of them can cause severe illness and possible death.
What have Imperfect Fungi been observed to not have?
A sexual reproduction phase.
What is the best-known Imperfect Fungi?
The Penicillium notatum that frequently grows on fruit and is the source of the antibiotic penicillin.
What is a Saprobe?
A saprobe is an orgasm that obtain food from decaying organic matter.
What is the role that Fungi play as Decomposers?
They maintain the equilibrium in multiple ecosystems by recycling nutrients by breaking down the bodies and wastes of other organisms.
What do Parasitic Fungi Cause?
Plant, Animal, and Human Diseases.
What percent of crops are lost to fungi in temperate and tropical regions?
15% in temperate regions; 50% in tropical regions
What two plants do wheat rusts require to complete their life cycle?
The barberry and wheat plants.
What is Athlete's Foot?
A fungus that produces a red, inflamed sore from which the spores can easily spread from person to person.
What Happens when athletes foot infects other areas of the body?
It produces a red scaling sore known as ringworm.
What is Thrush?
Thrush is a painful mouth and female reproductive tract infection, caused by Candida albicans, a yeast.
Why is it important to have bacteria in your body?
So that you do not get fungal infections.
What is a Lichen?
A lichen is a symbiotic association between a fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthetic organism, usually a green algae or cyanobacterium.
Why are Lichens able to survive harsh environments?
Because the algae carry out photosynthesis, providing the fungus with a source of energy, and the fungus provides the algae with water and minerals that it collects and protects the algae from intense sunlight.
What are Mycorrhizae?
Mycorrhizae are associations of plant roots and fungi.
How is the symbiotic relationship beneficial to the fungus and plant?
The fungi aid plants in absorbing water and minerals, and they release enzymes that free nutrients in the soil. Plants provide fungi with the products of photosynthesis. The presence of mycorrhizae is essential for the growth of many plants, including orchids and most trees.